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Adabiyoti realisti

Adiboni realistii nimai duyumi asri XIX – avvali asri XX kambudihoi jomearo notarsona fosh mekardand. YAke az mashhurtarin navisandagoni realisti on zamon fransavi Emil Zolya bud. U dar romanhoi bistjildai khud, ki nomi umumii “Rugon-Makker” (Tarikhi tabii va ijtimoii yak oila dar solhoi Imperiyai duyum)-ro giriftaand, hayoti hamai tabaqahoi jomeai Faronsa – az ashrofon cap karda to tabaqahoi korgaru lashkarro inikos kardaast. Vay dar in asar ziddiyathoi ijtimoii zamoni khudro khele khub kushoda tavonistaast.

Dar avval Emil Zolya naturalist bud, vale bad ba realizm vorid shuda, dar in jarayoni adabi mashhur gardid.

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Ejodiyoti Jek London az ejodiyoti navisandagoni digar bo qatiyat va amiqii kushodani obrazhoi qahramonho farq mekunad. Romani u ‘“Poi ohanin” az azobu uqubati inson dar okhirat peshguiho mekunad. Asari tarjumaiholii J. London “Martin Iden” bo sanati balandi navisandagi insho shudaast. Dar on muallif fojiai khayoti ejodkorro ba qalam dodaast.

Dar in davra adabiyoti realistii IMA ba muvaffaqiyati kalon noil gardid. Bad az jangi shahrvandii solhoi 1861-1865 adabiyoti in mamlakat ru ba taraqqi nihod. Inro dar ejodiyoti yake az namoyandagoni mashhuri adabiyoti Amerika Mark Tven didan mumkin ast. U hajvnigor boshad ham, tavassuti hamin janr voqeiyati jomearo khub bayon karda tavonistaast. “Ajnabiho dar darbori shoh”, “Davrodavri odam”, “Sarguzashti Tom Soyer” va “Sarguzashti Geklberri Finn” isboti in guftaho meboshand.

Dar ejodiyoti navisandai digari mashhuri IMA Teodor Drayzer tarzi “zindagii amerikavi”-ro mebinem. U dar asarhoi khud tarafi manfii “shukufoii” Amerikaro ba khonandagon kushoda dodaast. Inro shumo az romanhoi “Hohar Kyorri”, “Jenni Gerkhardt”, “Moliyachi”, “Titan” va romanhoi digari u dida metavoned. Dar onho T. Drayzer jomeai sarmoyadoriro ba zeri toziyonai shadidi tanqid giriftaast.

Romen Rollan tavassuti asari bisyorjildai khud “Jan Kristof” tanazzuli akhloqii jomeai burjuazii Faronsa va Germaniyai zamoni khudro ba qalam dodaast. Qahramoni asari u bastakor Kristof ba razolat, riyokori, firebu nayrang va mansabparastiyu rishvakhuri toqatnopazir ast. Asarhoi digari R. Rollan, az on jumla, “YArmarka dar maydon” niz fisqu fasodi jomeai Faronsaro fosh kardaast.

Nasli navi realiston Jon Golsuorsi, Bernard SHou, Gerbert Uels va digaron ham bo asarhoi balandpoyai khud obrui jahoni kasb namudaand. Onho munofiqi, gofili va mahdudiyathoi tabaqahoi boloii jomearo berahmona tanqid mekunand.

Navisandai mashhuri nemis T. Mann dar asari mashhuri khud “Imperiya” jihathoi manfii jomeai Germaniyaro fosh namudaast. Dar sahifahoi on shumo bo shohonu kayzerho, khoinonu ashrofon, amaldoronu imperatori Germaniya Vilgelmi II shinos meshaved va mefahmed, ki onho chi khel insonhoyand. In navisanda dar peshrafti adabiyoti hajvii chaqon maqomi kalon dorad.

Adabiyoti realisti na tanho dar Evropayu Amerika, inchunin dar baze mamlakathoi qitahoi digar ham pesh raft va khususan adabiyoti SHarq. Az namoyandagoni on tanho du nafar A. Ryusskei joponi va R. Takuri hindiro nom mebarem. YAke tavassuti novellaho goyahoi manfii zamonro mahkum mekunad, digare tavassuti romanu povestho va hikoyahoi khud bo mazmuni chuquri falsafi va zavqi balandi badei mardumro davat mekunad, ki baroi istiqloliyati milli muboriza barand. Asarhoi R. Takur ba problemahoi hayoti mardumi Hinduston, ishqu muhabbat va ziddiyathoi ijtimoii jomea bakhshida shudaand. Romani “Zavol”-i u az hamin qabil asarhost.

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