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AVESTO

avestaAVESTO, Avasto, Abasto, qadimtarin asari adabiyoti mardumi oriyoi (eroninajod), kitobi muqaddasi zardushtiya – oini khalqhoi eroninajod. Matni ibtidoii A., ki dar bayni ahli mazhab shifohi naql meyoft (zaboni A. dar a. 4 to m. matruk bud), badtar kitobat shuda (alifboi «avestoi» az a. 3 bolotar nest), dar ahdi Sosoniyon (a-hoi 3 – 7) surati rasmi giriftaast, az 21 kitob (nask) iborat buda, 350000 kalimaro darbar megirift (tanho 83000 kalimaash to zamoni mo boqi mondaast). A. dar du tahrir (variant) mamul ast: yakum – machmuai porchahoi ibodati, ki az chand kitobi on faroham omadaast va duyum – panch qismi mustaqil: «Vandidod» – machmuai amrhoi dini, «Vis- parad» va «YAsno» – munochot; «YAshtho» – surudhoi muqaddasi ezidon (Aredvi- sura Anohita, Mitra, Haoma va dig.) va zardushti; «Hurd-Avesto» – duoho, matnho baroi ichroi namoz va marosimhoi dini. Qadimtarin bakhshi A. «Gotho» (surudho) meboshad, ki onhoro khudi Zardusht navish- taast. «Gotho» muhimtarin qismi «YAsno» buda, 17 bobi onro (az 72 bob) tashkil medihand. Dar «YAshtho» asotir, qissahovu rivoyathoi mardumi eroninajod faroham omadaand. Varianti yakumi A. tarchumai pahlavi (forsii miyona) nadorad (binobar on «Vandidodi soda» – sof nom giriftaast). Matni varianti duyum tarchumai taf- sirnoke ba zaboni pahlavi dorad, ki onro «Zand» menomand (iborai «Zand-Avesto» az hamin cho baromadaast).
A. dar ibtidoi hazorai yakumi to m. dar marzi Osiyoi Markazi va shim. Afgoniston paydo shudaast. Takomuli minbadai A. dar kishvarhoe, ki mardumi eroni maskun budand – Mod, Atropatena (Ozarboychon) va khususan chanubi Eron (Fors) ba amal omadaast. Binobar on A. chun asari adabi- yot ba khalqhoi in cho niz nisbate doshta, baroi omukhtani tarikh, madaniyat, etiqodi dini, folklor va ananahoi adabiyu este- tikii in khalqho ahamiyati buzurge dorad. A. asari diniyu ibodati boshad ham, bisyor porchahoi adabie dorad, ki asosan az chanbai asotiri iborat buda, namunahoi folklori eroniyoni qadimro to imruz boqi doshtaast. A., gayri farmoishoti marosimiyu mazhabii sof, az nuqtai nazari goyavi unsurhoi ibtidoii ilmi, tibbi, tasavvuroti qonunguzori, machmui ba ham omezishyoftai dasturhoi aqidavi (dini va falsafii ibtidoi), akhloqi va estetikiro niz dar bar giriftaast.
Dar A. ilmi tib chun sanati dar holati solim nigoh doshtani badan bayon yoftaast. Bino ba malumoti A. tib va tabibon dar on davru zamon martabai baland doshtaand. YAk qismi A. – «Vandidod» purra ba masalahoi muhiti zist va tib bakhshida shudaast. «Vandidod» az 22 fargard iborat buda, dar on tahlili sababi bemoriho, nochurihoi mavridi bemoriho rukhdihanda, rohu vositahoi peshgiri va tabobati bemoron muvofiqi falsafai zardushtiya manidod meshavand. Haddi asosii tibbi A. iborat az se amal ast: tadbir (peshgiri), tabobat (bo doru, charrohi) va duokhoni (talqin). Inchunin dar A. talimi tarzi hayoti solim (pok nigoh doshtani badan, mohiyati giriftani nokhunu muy, pokii manzil, obu khok, mohiyati gizo, mashrubot, mahv sokhtani hasharoti zarar- rason va g.) choy dorand. Muvofiqi tali- moti A. ofaridgori koinot Ahura Mazdo ast, ki u tachassumi neki, nur va haqiqat buda, bo yorii farishtahoi gunogun ba ma- rizon dasti yori daroz mekunad. Dar baro- bari in dar A. ofarinishi bad Ahriman niz faoliyat dorad. U sababgori badi, durug va zulmot buda, ba sari odam 99999 bemori ovardaast. A. oid ba masalahoi hifzi modaru tifl, oila va nikoh, odobi tabibu tabobat, tashkhisi bemoriho malu- moti cholib medihad. Dar on tasiri ka- lom, giyohhoi shifobakhsh va teg az chumlai vositahoi muolichai marizon donista shudaand. Dar A. hamchunin doir ba anatomiya va fiziologiyai odam malumoti umumi zikr yoftaast. Dar bayni sababhoi bemori shamol kashidan, harorati baland, odathoi nomatlub, gurusnagi, purkhuri, khastagi, gizoi pastsifat va g. bayon shudaand. Qayd gashtaast, ki bemori ba chismi odam ba vo- sitai dahon, bini, chashm, pust, azoi tano- sul va g. vorid meshavad. Dar A. ba hamli durust, tavalludi tifli solim, behdoshti zan, peshgirii amrozi zanona etibori chiddi doda shudaast. Eroniyoni qadim choki qaysarro khub medonistand. Malum ast, ki Rustam az batni modar bo hamin roh berun ovarda shuda bud. Dar A. oid ba bemorihoi charrohitalab (sukhta, oseb, zakhm va g.) niz malumot vuchud dorad. Hamchunin takid gashtaast, ki chasadi marhum az mahalli sukunat dur nigoh doshta, qoidahoi behdosht rioya va ba chasad rasidani obi kishtzor va asbobhoi ruzgor peshgiri karda shavad.
Dukhtaronu pisaron az 15-solagi bolig donis- ta meshudand. Dar A. qayd gashtaast, ki Ahu- ra Mazdo baroi oda- mon besh az 10 000 giyohi shifobakhsh ato karda- ast. Dar A. nakhustin pizishki rui zamin Trita zikr shudaast. U hamai navhoi giyohhoi shifobakhsh va tarzi az onho tahiya sokhtani doruro medonist. Dar A. hamchunin khosiyati shifobakhshii shakar, asal, ravgani shaftolu, kunjid, shilmi darakht, sirko, sir, may va g. yodovar shudaast. Baze giyohhoi shifobakhshi dar A. ovarda to imruz ma- lumand. Mas., haoma (efedra), ki dar A. tavsif yoftaast, dar Hinduston chun rastanii «soma», dar noh. Ayni chun rastanii «khum», dar noh. Panjakent bo nomi «ham» malum buda, az on doru tahiya mesozand. Muvofiqi malumoti A. ba tabibi odamo- ni makhsus shugl doshtand. Onho duru daroz talim girifta, dar barobari faslhoi nazari va amalii tib biologiya, zoologiya, botanika, tarikh, adabiyot, astrologiya, falsafa, din va g.-ro az khud mekardand. Tabobati chorvo niz ba uhdai tabibon voguzor bud. Nisbati tabibon talaboti nihoyat sakht vujud doshtand. Mas., jarroh qabl az on ki ba in kasb mashgul shavad, boyad se nafar odamoni dinashon gayri zardushtiro jarrohi karda, az sanjish meguzasht. Dar surati natijai dilkhoh nadodani jarrohi tabib huquq nadosht, ki ba kasbi khud idoma dihad. Dar asosi malumotu sanadhoi mavjuda metavon khulosa barovard, ki omuzishi A. imkon medihad saromadu shabohat, vahdatu reshai amiqi tarikhii tibbi mardumi eroninajod muqarrar karda shavad.
Ad.: Tojiev YA., Ishoqi YU.B., Tarikhi mukhtasari tibbi tojik, Dushanbe, 1993; Naqshi Ave- sto dar tamadduni milli va jahoni, Dushanbe, 2001; Avesto, Dushanbe, 2001.

M. Dilovarov.

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