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AUTIZM

autizm_simptomyAUTIZM (Autismus), yak guruhi bemorihost, ki dar mavridi onho tashakkuli malakahoi nutq ba takhir aftoda, dar munosibati mariz ba digaron nojuriho paydo meshavand. A. ikhtiloli inkishofi ruhi buda, dar shaklhoi gunogun zuhur meyobad. CHunin kudakonro dar hama jo – az bogcha to maktabu kollejho – paydo kardan mumkin ast. Kudakoni giriftori A. dar munosibat ba digaron va mutobiqati ijtimoi dushvori mekashand, muhtoji dastgirii makhsus meboshand. CHunin kudakon ba nazari digaron erka, zudranj, betarbiya va nozuktab menamoyand. Az in ru, onho beasos tanbeh megirand, gap meshunavand va dar natija majbur meshavand muqobili jamiyat amal namoyand, ba kase nazdiki va dusti nakunand. Sarivaqt tashkhis kardani A. az nigohi tibbi khele muhim ast.
Bisyor olimoni soha bar aqidaeand, ki A.-i kudakon binobar illati silsilai asabhoi markazi rukh menamoyad. Az nigohi kliniki chunin kudakonro metavon ba 4 guruhi raftoru kirdorashon mutlaqo gunogun judo kard: 1) kudakone, ki nisbati hama chiz betavajjuhand; 2) kudakone, ki olami atrofro namekhohand dark bikunand; 3) kudakone, ki garqi dunyoi khesh meboshand; 4) kudakone, ki ba dili onho roh yoftan oson nest.
Kudakoni mutaalliq ba guruhi avval az khurdi diqqati digaronro bo nigohi «manidor» va «zirakona»-i khud jalb mekunand. Onho oromtabiat va qobil meboshand. CHunin kudakonro metavon soatho dar gahvora tanho guzosht. Vale dar barobari in onho odati tarsonchaki dorand, az sadohoi gunogun, mas., ovozi changkashak, rishgirak, shaqshaqa va bozichahoi digar metarsand. Bozicha baroi onho jolib nest, ammo kitob va sadoi musiqiro mepisandand. Dar zindagi chunin kudakon baroi volidon dardi sar nameshavand.
Kudakoni mansub ba guruhi duyum nisbatan faol buda, modari khudro az khurdi dar bayni digaron meshinosand, namekhohand, ki u az bari onho dur shavad. Istemoli gizohoi dilkashro mepisandand, az gum kardani yagon chizi khud dargazab meshavand. Onho hanuz yaksola nashuda rangi kubikhoro farq karda metavonand, harfhoro nishon medihand. Odati tarsonchaki doshta, az ovozi baland, obbozi, giriftani muysar va nokhunho metarsand. Nutqi in guna kudakon tashakkul nayoftaast.
Kudakoni guruhi seyum serharakat va beqaror meboshand. Onho bisyor vaqt giriftori diatez va bemorihoi allergi meshavand. Volidon, odatan, chunin kudakro bemehr va sardraftor mehisoband; u metavonad dar ogushi modar istoda ba rui vay shapoti zanad. Mavzui suhbati chunin kudakon yakrang ast, doirai khayoloti onhoro beshtar voqeahoi nokhush, jangho, kushtorho faro giriftaand. Hisob, shohmot, mashguliyathoi astronomiro dust medorand.
Ba guruhi chorum kudakone mansub donista meshavand, ki giriftori shaklhoi nisbatan sabuki A. meboshand. Onho az khurdi modari khudro dar bayni digaron zud farq menamoyand, az odamoni begona metarsand. CHunin kudakon, odatan, beqaror, tarsonchak, zudranj, nouhdabaro, mehrubon meboshand. Sukhanronii onho sust va okhiri kalima nimgurma ast.
Dar oila ba kudakoni giriftori A. boyad munosibati durust karda shavad. Baroi chunin kudakon tarbiyai muolijavi zarur ast. Tabobati onho boyad dar hambastagi bo ravonpizishkon, dukhturoni asab, dukhturoni ravonshinos va pedagogho surat gardad.
Ad.: Sidorov P.I., Parnyakov A.V., Klinicheskaya psikhologiya, M., 2002; Ostrovskaya I.V., Psikhologiya, M., 2005.
N. M. SHarofova.

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