Home / Jugrofia / ATMOSFERA

ATMOSFERA

Atmosfera chist? Atmosfera (lafzi yunoni buda, “atmos” – bug. gaz va “sfera”- kura ast) tabaqai havoest, ki Zaminro ihota khardaast. On tabaqai bolotarin va zichiash kamtarini Zamin leboshad. Az zamonhoi khele qadim tabiati fizikii on diqqati odimonro ba khud jalb mekard. Dar in joda olimoni SHark, az jumla Qutbuddini SHerozy sahmi arzanda guzoshtaast. Akidai u oid ba tarkib, sokht va rangi atmosfera ba aqidai ilmi muosir shabohat dorad. Muvofiqi aqidai u atmosfera az omekhtai gazhoi gunogun iborat ast. Dar tarkibi on inchunin zarrahoi changu gardi zaminy vomekhurand. Atmosferaro ba qabatkhoi poyoni va boloi judo mekunand. Rangi atmosfera shaffof ast.

QABATHOI ATMOSFERA
QABATHOI ATMOSFERA

Atmosfera sarhadi aniq nadorad. Bo vujudi on ki atmosfera dar tarkishhoi Zamin va kovokihoi jinshoi kuhi mavjud ast, hududn poyonii onro sathi Zamin mehisoband. Sarhadi boloi khele ham noayoi ast va onro shartan balandii 3000 km hisobidaand. Balandtar az 20 km ham mavjud budani havo muayyan gardidaast. Vale havo dar fazoi kayhonioshrokanda nameshavad, zero quvvai buzurgi kashishi Zamin onro nigoh medorad.

Havo dar nazdikii sathi Zamin zichtar va vaznintar ast. Agar dar sathi bahr massai 1 m murabba havo dar harorati 0°S 1 kg 293 g boshad. pas dar balandii 12 km tanho 310 g. dar balandii 40 km faqat 4 g ast. Bo afzudani balandi na faqat zichii havo, balki harorat va namii on niz tagyir meyobad. Harorati miyonai sol dar mahalhoi Tojikiston dar balandii 350 m 13.8°S, dar balandii 1000 m 11° S. dar balandii 2000 m 8° S va dar balandii 3600 m harorat 1,5°S meboshad.

Tarkib va sokhti atmosfera. Tarkibi havo ba hisobi miyona az 78 foiz nitrogen, 21 foiz oksigen, 0.03 foiz gazi karbonat va az omekhtai gazhoi digar iborat ast. Dar tarkibi havo gayr az in ob va zarrahoi changu gubor mavjudand. Baroi organizmi inson oksigen akhamiyati kalon dorad va tozagii havo hayotan muqim meboshad.

Atmosferaro ba se qabati asosy judo mekunaid: troposfera, strapyusfera va qabathoi balandi on. Qabati poyontarin va muhimtarini atmosfera troposfera buda, gafsii on dar boloi khati istivo 17 km, dar qutbho 8 9 va dar mintaqakhoi mutadil 10-11 km aet. Dar troposfera karib 80 foizi tamomi massai atmosfsra mavjud meboshad.

Tamomi hodisahoi meteorologi va iqlimi dar troposfsra rukh medihand. CHunonchi, tamomi bugi obi atmosfsra dar hamin qabat buda, abr, borishot va digar khodisaho ba vujud meoyand. Dar troposfera gaz, chang va gayra mavjudand.

Baroi troposfera du hodisa makhsusan khos ast: a)barobari afzudani balandii mahal past shudani harorat: b) mavjud budani harorati boshiddati ufuqi va amudii havo.

Havoi troposfera az garmivu sardii az sathi Zamin khorijshuda garm va sard meshavad. Manbai asosii garmshavii sathi Zamin nurhoi Oftob meboshad. Az hamin sabab havo har kadar az sathi Zamin dur boshad, hamon kadar khunuktar ast. Harorat ba hisobi miyona ba har 100 metr 0,6°S (dar 1 kilometr 6°S) past meshavad.

Holati havo dar troposfera – harora g, harakati on, namnoki ba on vobasta ast, ki havo dar chy kadar balandy voqe msboshad.

Stratosfera qabati az troposfera boloi atmosfera meboshad va to balandiho 50 – 55 km tul mekashad. Havoi on nihoyat tunuk ast va qarib bugi ob vujud nadorad. Dar qismi poyonii stratosfera dar troposfera harorati havo khele past meshavad, vale takhminan az balandii 20 km cap karda baland megardad. Dar stratosfera jamshavii gazi ozon vujud dorad, ki mavjudoti zindai Zaminro az tasiri nurhoi zararnoki Oftob emin medorad.

Dar stratosfera hodisakhoi abr hosilshavi va borishot rukh namedihand.

Ahamiyati atmosfera. Atmosfera manbai hayot ast. Vay sarchashmai nafaskashi meboshad va odam be havo hatgo panj daqiqa ham zindagi karda nametavonad. Atmosfera chun libosi Zamin ast, ki onro az nihoyat garmu sardshavi nigoh medorad, digar havo namebud, sathi Zamin monandi sathi Moh (harorati sathi Moh dar khududi az +1200 to 1200 dar yak shabonaruz tagyir meyobad) behayot megardid. Atmosfera baroi Zamin monandi sipar ast va onro az aftidani meteoritkho va nurhoi zararnoki Oftob muhofizat mekunad. Atmosfsra nigohdorandai tavozuni ob dar rui Zamin meboshad, dar surati nabudani tabaqai havo -gamomi obi uqyonusho bug shuda meraft.

Dar zamoni khozira faoliyati khojagii inson, khususan afzudani istifodai suzishvori boisi beshtar iflosshavii havo, afzudani miqdori gazi karbonat gardida istodaast. Muhim ast, ki baroi hifzi tozagii havo choraho andeshida shavand, naguzorem, ki manbai hayot havo iflos gardad, peshi rohi partoftani gazhoi zararnokro giriftan lozim ast.

Salomatii odamon. faoliyati khojagii onho, khususan dar sohai kishovarzi ba tozagii havoi atmosfera va hodisahoi dar on rukhdihanda vobasta ast. Agap har yak fard ba qadri salomati birasad. boyad baroi tammii tozagii havo hissaguzor boshad. Dar korkhonaho guzoshtani changkash va dudkashho khele muhim ast. Dar shahru nohiyaho vase kardani maydoni kabudizor, khususan darakhtu buttaho, ba roh mondani hifzi onho  hayotan zarur meboshad. CHunki darakhton na tanho oksigenro ba havo mebarorand, balki changhoro medorand va bo in baroi kamshavii changu gubor sharoit faroham meorand. Az in ru, hamajoniba omukhtani kholati atmosfera ahamiyati kalon dorad.

Savol va suvorish

  1. Mafhumi atmosfera chist?
  2. Dar boranion ki atmosfera manbai hayot ast, chi dalelho ovarda metavoned?
  3. Troposfera va stragosferaro muqoisa kuned. Onho  chi farq dorand?
  4. Kadom hodisahoi dar troposfera rukhdodaro mushohida kardaed?
  5. Sababhoi iflosshavii havo dar mahali shumo kadomand?
  6. Baroi muhofizati tozagii havo chi tadbirkho andeshida meshavaid?
  7. Daftari obu havo tartib dihed va ba on holati harruzai atmosferaro navised.
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

zamin-1

KOMPLEKSHOI TABIII MAHAL VA ONHORO TAGYIRDODANI INSON

SHumo medoned, ki komplekshoi tabiy dar natijai robita va tasiri mutaqobilai jinshoi kuhy, havo, ob, …