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ATMOSFERA – QISHRI OSMONII ZAMIN

Mo dar qari uqyonusi havoie zindagy mekunem, ki vay atmosfera nomida me­shavad. Atmosfera dar faoliyati hayoty dar sayyorai mo chy ahamiyat dorad?

Havo dar Zamin namoyon nest. Vale vay kurai Zaminro purra ihota mekunad.

Atmosferai Zamin – In libosi on ast.

Havo sathi Zaminro az shuohoi garmi oftoby hifz namuda, hamzamon na- meguzorad, ki garmy dar fazo pahn gardad. Tavri misol, azbaski dar girdi Moh atmosfera vujud nadorad, ruzona sathi Moh to ba + 120°S garm shuda, shabona to ba – 160°S khunuk meshavad.

Atmosfera sayyorai moro az meteoritho niz muhofizat mekunad. Agar on namebud, meteoritho ba Zamin hamchun boron meaftidand. Vaqte meteoritho tavassuti atmosfera parvoz mekunand, onho ba muqovimati havo ru ba ru, porcha-porcha shuda, dar atmosfera mesuzand. CHunin hodisaro metavon dar osmoni shabona mushohida kard. Hamchunin atmosfera Zaminro, hayvonotro, rastanihoro az shuohoi khatarnoki kayhoni muhofizat mekunad. Organizmhoi zinda be havo zindagy karda nametavonand. Hama az havo nafas mekashand. Odam metavonad be khurok yakchand hafta, be ob yakchand ruz zindagy kunad, vale be havo hamagi yakchand daqiqa zindagy khohad kard.

Paydo shudani abrho dar osmon, havoi borishoti az mavchud budani bugho dar atmosfera dalolat mekunand. Tarkibi atmosferai Zamin doimy meboshad. Olimon tajriba va chenkunihoi makhsus guzaronida, tarkibi doimii zerini havoro muayyan kardand:

Azot – 78 %;

Kislorod – 21 %;

Gazi angidridi karbon – 0,03 %;

Bugi obu omekhtagiho – 0,03 %;

Ozon va gazhoi inerty (geliy, neon, argon, kripton, ksenon…) – 0,94 %.

Doimiyati tarkibi gazi atmosfera – in sharti asosii mavchudiyat va inkishof dodani hayot ast.

Kislorod dar atmosfera nisbat ba har chizi boqimonda beshtar zarur ast. Vay baroi nafaskashii inson, hayvonot va rastaniho zarur ast. Kislorod hamchunin dar faoliyati ruzgordorii odam tavri vase istifoda meshavad. Hangomi sukhtani suzishvori dar muharriki avtomobilho, havopaymoho, dar otashdoni istgohhoi barqi kislorod zarur ast.

Avtomobile, ki 100 km rohro tay kardaast, hamon qadar kislorodro istifoda mebarad, ki yak odam dar yak sol istifoda mebarad. Tasavvur bikuned, dar majmu hamai avtomobilhoi dunyo chi qadar kislorod istifoda mebarand. Darchand in kadar ziyod kislorod baroi nafaskashi, barafrukhtani otash, ruzgordorii inson istifoda meshavad

Miqdori on dar havo tagyir nameyobad. Pas malum megardad, kichize vujud do­rad, ki zakhirai kislorodro dar atmosfera pur mekunad.

Soli 1771 olimi kimiyoshinos Pristli hangomi omuzishi gazi angidridi kar- bon tasodufan ba zarfi pushida, shami furuzonro joygir kard va did, ki pas az chand muddat vay khomush gardid. Ba hamon zarf mushro cap dod, ki pas az chand muddat nafaskashii u niz mushkil gardid. Vale rastaniero dar hamon qutti, ki mush dar on nafasgir shuda bud, guzoshta, didand, ki vay ba sabzidan idoma dorad. Vaqte Pristli mushro dar quttie, ki tayi 7 ruz dar on rastani nashunamo dosht, joygir kard, did, ki mush Davida, bozy mekunad. Pas malum megardad, ki rastany gazi an­gidridi karbonro furu burda, kislorodro khorij kardaast. CHunin kashfiyot dar bo- rai ahamiyati hayratangezi rastany bar tamomi jahon malum gardid. In tajribaro
SHumo khudaton metavoned mustaqilona guzaroned. Du bonkaro girifta, bo gardana- ash poyon ba zarfi obdor guzoshta du shami yakkhelaro zeri onho moned. Dar zeri yake az bonkaho rastanii zindaro bo barghoyash moned. (rasmi 72). In hama boyad dar joi bo shuoi oftob khub rushanshavanda va yo tavassuti lampahoi barqi rushanshavanda qaror bigirad. Mushohida kuned, ki dar zeri kadom bonka sham teztar khomush me- shavad.

Soli 1782 olimi shveysari Senebye tahqiqot guzaronida, rastanii bargash sab- zro ba ob khastaast. Dar on tarafi bargho, ki bo Oftob rushan shudaand, hubobchahoi kadom yak gaz paydo shudand. In gazi khorijshavandaro vay dar probirka jam kar­da, dar on piltai khomushshavandaro joygir kard. Pilta alanga girifta, shuru ba sukhtan kard. Malum megardad, ki bargho dar ob kislorod khorij kardaand. Az in Senebye ba chunin khulosa omad, ki rastaniho gazi angidridi karbonro az muhiti zist furu burda, kislorod khorij mekunand.

Gazi angidridi karbon , ki tavassuti rastaniho furu burda shudaand, ba pay­do shudani moddahoi organiky musoidat mekunand. Dar barghoi sabz, tavassuti surokhihoyashon du ravandi ba hamdigar muqobili taboduli gazho surat megirad: yakum hangomi nafaskashy surat megirad, duvvum hangomi hamchun gizo istemol namuda- ni gazi angidridi karbon (toblui 10). Rastaniho hangomi gizokhuri gazi angidridi karbonro jabbida, kislorodro khorij mekunand. Hangomi nafaskashy baraks, vale kislrod yakchand marotiba nisbat ba in ki jabbida meshavad, beshtar ikhroj megardad.

Rastaniho dar ruzi oftoby dar khud moddahoi organikiro, nisbat ba in ki hangomi nafaskashy dar shabonaruzi ziyod sarf mekunand, beshtar zakhira mekunand.

A Maydonhoi sabz manbai va tavlidkunandai asosii kislorod dar Zamin meboshand. Onhoro ehtiyot va afzun namoed!

Toblui 10

Ravandi gizogiry az gaz i angidridi karbon. Ravandi nafaskashy
Tanqo dar vaqti ruzona surat megirad. Dar vaqti ruzona va shabona surat megirad.
Gazi angidridi karbon furu burda Kislorod furu burda meshavad.
meshavad.
Kislorod khorij meshavad. Gazi angidridi karbon khorij meshavad.
Garmy furu burda meshavad. Garmy khorij meshavad.
Tanho dar qismathoi sabzi rastany paydo Dar hama qismhoi rastany ba vujus meoyad.
meshavad.
Moddahoi organiky jam meshavand. Modsahoi organiky pahn meshavand.

Du ravandi ba ham muqobil- sarfi kislorod va ba vujud omadani on dar Tabiat dar holati mutavozin qaror dorand. Vayron kardani in tavozun ba organizmhoi zin- da dar Zamin zarari kalon vorid mesozad.

Dar havo, gayr az moddahoi doimy, hamchunin omekhtagihoe vujud dorand, ki havoro iflos mekunand. In har nav changho meboshand. Aksariyati changho dar qabati nazdizaminii havo jam meshavand. Hatto pas az boron dar yak santimetri murabbai havo nazdik ba 30 hazor gardu changhoi mayda mavjud meboshad. Dar ruzhoi mamuli boshad, tedodi onho boz ham bepggar ast. Sababhoi paydoishi changu gubor in vay­ron shudani jinshoi kuhy, berun jastani vulkanho, sukhtan va aftodani meteorithoi kalon, faoliyati istehsolii korkhonaho, naqliyot va digar hodisahoi sershumor me­boshand. Hangomi shamoli sakht shalapposi bahrho zud bukhor meshavand va dar atmos­fera hissachahoi khurdi namakro boqy metuzorand.

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