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ATEROSKLEROZ

aterosklerozATEROSKLEROZ (Atherosclerosis; az yun. athere – shula va skleros – sakht), bemorii muzmini arteriyaho, ki boisi tadrijan tang shudani surokh va ikhtiloli faoliyati onho megardad. Zimni paydoishi A. jarayoni khun dar sharayon, ki uzvhoro bo oksigen va moddahoi gizoi tamin megardonad, noqis va faoliyati on mahdud khohad shud. Dar natija uzv az uhdai ijroi vazifahoi khud durust baromada nametavonad.
A. dar javoni chun ateromatoz ba vujud omada, sol az sol beshtar meshavad. A. nisbat ba mardon dar zanon 3 – 4 marotiba kamtar va ba hisobi miyona 10 sol badtar, odatan, badi ogozi davrai klimaks vomekhurad. Dar natijai A. raghoi hayotan muhimi dil va mayna oseb meyoband. A. metavonad boisi kornoshoyami va favti bemoron gardad.
Dar on qismi devorai arteriya, ki az A. oseb didaast, gayr az hujayra va torhoi boftai fibrozi hamesha kholesterin niz gird meoyad. Az in ru dukhturon onro sababi yagonai inkishofi A. mepindoshtand. Vale dar ravandi omuzishi amiqi khususiyathoi A. malum shud, ki aqidai mazkur chandon asos nadorad. Holesterin ba miqdori ziyod dar mayna va gadudhoi boloi gurda hosil va jam meshavad; vay dar tarkibi pardai bisyor hujayrahoi organizmi zinda mavjud ast; boftahoi charbi niz kholesterini ziyod dorand. Dar organizmi odam kholesterin duchori tagyiroti gunogun megardad. Dar natija vobasta ba khususiyathoi jarayoni mubodila payvasthoi kholesterinie hosil meshavand, ki biduni mamoniat ba devorai rag meguzarand (asosan moddahoi tabiatashon safedavi). Dar in holat gilzati kholesterin dar zardobi khun meafzoyad; az in lihoz gilzati ziyodi kholesterin (giperkholesterinemiya) dar khuni marizoni giriftori A. omili nomatlub buda, ba inkishofi bemori musoidat mekunad.
Dar paydoish va inkishofi A. tagyiroti hujayrahoi boftai devorai arteriyaho mavqei muhim va hatto halkunanda dorand. Jarayoni A. du tamoyulro darbar megirad: yakum – afzudani osebi devorai rag va dar on tahshin shudani kholesterin; duyum – az devorai arteriya dur gashtani tahshini kholesterin va durust shudani qismhoi osebdidai devora. Ba tavri digar guem, A. nafaqat khususiyati inkishof yoftan, balki qobiliyati bozgashtan niz dorad.
Azbaski A. sust (dar muddati dahsolaho) inkishof meyobad, on boyad az sinni javoni to okhiri umr peshgiri karda shavad. Tadbirhoi jilavgirii A. ijroi maslihat va tavsiyahoi dukhturro oid ba tarzi hayoti solim dar nazar dorand.
Dil va silsilai ragho amalan dar hama guna taassuri odam nisbat ba angezandahoi muhit shirkat mevarzand. Binobar in tabiist, ki iztirobi sistemai asab boisi kori purshiddati dil va silsilai ragho megardad. Asaboni shudan yo azobi ruhi kashidan az omilhoest, ki ba silsilai ragho tasiri manfi merasonad. Az in ru khotima bakhshidan ba raftorhoi nomatlub az jumlai muhimtarin rohhoi peshgirii A. mahsub meyobad.
Baroi peshgirii A. qabl az hama faoliyati khubi tanzimi asabu gormoni zarur ast. Kostagii faoliyati mushakho (gipodinamiya), istemoli ziyodi khuroki sercharb (boisi farbehi megardad), kamii vitaminho dar khurok va tamokukashi ba paydoishi A. musoidat mekunand. Azbaski jigar jarayoni murattabi tabadduloti biokhimiyaviro tamin menamoyad, baroi kori mutadili on khurok boyad servitamin boshad. Gayr az in, dar baze mavridho parhez lozim ast. Baroi bartaraf namudani tahshinhoi aterosklerozi istemoli ravgani rastani (oftobparast, pakhta, zaytun va g.) nafi ziyod dorad.
Inkishofi A. ba baland shudani fishori khun niz vobasta ast. Boyad ogoh kard, ki khudmuolija (bo maqsadi past kardani fishori khun) oqibati nokhush ba bor meorad, chunki yakbora past shudani fishori khuni odamoni giriftori A. kori magzi sar, dil va dig. uzvhoro khalaldor mesozad. Diabeti qand az qabili on bemorihoest, ki ba inkishofi A. takon medihad. CHunin bemoron boyad hatman tahti nazorati doimii dukhtur boshand.
A. bemorii irsi nest va az padaru modar ba farzand nameguzarad. Vale mayl doshtan ba on dar haqiqat hodisai merosi ast. Binobar in shakhsone, ki padaru modarashon duchori A. shudaand, boyad in bemoriro hatman peshgiri kunand.
A.-i umumi (hamai ragho) nisbatan kam duchor meoyad. Hangomi on, odatan, raghoi magzi sar, dil, gurda va poy beshtar oseb meyoband. Dar mavridi bagoyat afzudani tagyiroti aterosklerozi ikhtiloli shadidi gardishi khuni raghoi mayna rukh namuda, ehtimol dorad bo saktai magzi sar anjom pazirad. Dar natijai A.-i raghoi iklili va kamkhunii mushakhoi dil noqisii iklili nom bemori ba vujud meoyad. Dar zaminai on ziqi dil va saktai dil barin nojuriho inkishof meyoband. Hangomi ba skleroz giriftor shudani arteriyahoi poy mushakhoi soqi poy dard karda, poy bemador va roh raftan mushkil meshavad.

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