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ASRORI TABIATRO CHY TAVR MEOMUZAND?

Mo hama medonem, ki dar binohoi garm yakh ob meshavad, dar khunuky ob yakh me- bandad, ohanrabo ashyoi ohaninro ba khud mekashad, ohan dar binohoi rutubatnok zang mezanad, dar garmy shir tursh meshavad, tiramoh bargho zard meshavand, ruz ba shab ivaz meshavad, shamol mevazad…

In donishho az kujo paydo shudand? Bisyor donishho az mushohida paydo mesha- vand. Odamon dark kardand, ki hangomi boronu radu barq darakhton otash girifta, sukhtor cap zadaast. Odamon posboni kardan va istifodai otashro dar joyhoi zisti khud yod giriftand. Dar YUnoni qadim odamon hangomi molishi kahrabo chizi pashmi- nero daryoftand, ki har guna ashyoro ba khud mekashad.

In tajribaro har yak nafari mo metavonad takror bikunad. Agar qalami plas- massaginro ba muyhoyamon va yo pashm bimolem, on goh vay qobiliyati ba khud jazb kar­dani porai kogaz va yo muyro paydo mekunad.

Istilohi dar faoliyati hayotii mo bisyor marufgashtai «elekgr» (barq) az vo- jai yunonii «yantar» – elektron paydo shudaast. Odamon donishho va malakahoi khu- dro tavassuti mushohidai olami muhit, az nael ba nael dar shakli rivoyot, yoddoshtho, alomatu nishonaho intiqol dodaand.

Olimon niz donishro dar asosi mushohidaho ba dast meovarand. Olimi lahistony Nikolay Kopernik, ba osmoni pursitorai shabongohy nigoh karda, muayyan namud, ki Zamin dar girdi Oftob davr mezanad.

Donishhoe, ki tavassuti mushohida ba dast ovarda shudaand, bo yorii tajribahoi makhsus sanjida meshavand. Tajribahoi ilmi hadafmandona, bo maqsadi mushakhkhas guzaronida meshavand.

Baroy on ki aftishi jismhoro biyomuzad, olimi itoliyovy Galileo Galiley, az burji shahri Piza du saqqoi az chuyan va sang sokhtashuro hamzamon ba poyon partofta, bovar bar on dosht, ki hardu saqqo ba zamin dar yak vaqt meaftand, agar havo khalal namerasond. Sandishi faraziyai ilmy dar tajriba – rohest ba daryofti haqiqat.

Faraziyai Galiley bad az ikhtiroi nasosi havoy sanjida shuda bud.

Baroy in dar dokhili naychai darozi shishagin, ki nugi yak tarafash kafshershuda- ast, saqqoi surby, puka (probka) va pari parranda guzoshtand.

Vaqte naychahoro chappagardon kardand, didand, ki saqqoi surby (qurgoshimy) pesh az pari parranda ba zamin aftod. (rasmi1a).

Sipae, in havoro az dokhili naycha berun kashidand va tachribaro takror namudand.

Aknun dida meshud, ki dar havoi tunukshuda saqqoi surby va pari parranda dar yak vaqt ba zamin aftodand (rasmi 1-6). Bad-in tartib, tavassuti tachriba faraziyai Galiley tasdiq gardida bud.

Badtar fiziki anglis Isaak Nyuton nazariyaero kashf kard, ki tavassuti on chy tavr va charo chizho ba Za­min meaftand, sharh doda meshud.

Soli 1767 vaqte olimi anglis J. Pristli, mushero dar zarfi sarbastai shishagin baroi chand muddat joygir kard va dar on shamro rushan sokht, tajriba nishon dod, ki sham dar on dar nagiriftaast.

Tajribai J. Pristliro olimi fizik Antuan Lavu- azye takror namuda simobro dar zarfi sarbasta dar gi- rondaast.

Vay sobit sokht, ki dar in vaqt 1/6 qismi havo «gum shuda», vale «gum shudani» in qismi havo imkon nadosh- taast.

Asidi (kislotai) simobiro barkashida A.Lavuzye bovary paydo kard, ki yak qismi havo bo simob payvast shu- daast.

Pas az on vay isbot namud, ki 5/6 qismi boqimondai havo na baroi nafaskashy, na baron dargiriftan shoyam na- meboshad.

26 apreli soli 1775 A. Lavuazye, dar Akademiyai ilmhoi Faronsa bo maruzae sukhanrony namuda, bori na- khust sharh dod, ki havo az du nav gaz iborat meboshad: Az gaze, ki qobiliyati nigah doshtani suzish, nafaskashy, ok- sidshavii filizotro dorad. Duvvum gaze, ki doroy chunin khislatho nameboshad.

Nomi «kislorod» va «azot» baroyashon badan doda shu- daand.

Baroi paydo kardani donishhoi ilmy oid ba olami ihotakunanda an- desha kardan az boloi natijahoi tajribahoi guzaronidashuda va sharhi onho lozim ast.

Baroi barguzorii tajribaho asbobhoi gunogun lozim meboshand.

Baze az asbobho biser ody meboshand. Tavri misol, bore, ki dar rishtai daroz ovezon karda shudaast. Sokhtmonchiyon onro shokul menomand va bo yorii on durustii amudinokii devorhoro dar binohoi bunyodshavan- da muayyan mekunand (rasmi 2).

Agar bori ovezonshudaro kham karda ba poyon farorand, vay ba harakat omada, daqiq va yo qarib ki daqiq takror meshavad.

Soli 1657 godu olimi hollandi in khususiyatro baroi soathoi lan- gardor istifoda burdaast.

Savolho

  1. Donishho dar asosi chy ba vujud meoyand?
  2. Ky bori nakhust guft, ki Zamii dar girdi Oftob davr mezanad?
  3. CHaro olimon tachriba meguzaronand?
  4. Dar asosi kadom tachriba olim Lavuazye gazi kislorodiero, ki mo iafas mekashem, ikhtiro kard?
  1. SHumo dar borai olimone chun N.Kpernik, G. Galiley, I. Nyutoy chy medoned?
  2. Odam boyad chy tavr az sarvathoi tabiy istifoda barad? SHumo chy tavr boyad bo Tabiat munosibat namoed?
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