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ASHKOLI DORU

220px-datos_pegados_ff93ASHKOLI DORU (Formae medicamentorum), shaklu holati doruhost, ki baroi istifodai bosamari onho musoidat mekunand. A. d.-ro dar dorukhonaho va yo muassisahoi farmasevti mesozand. A. d. moe, muloim, sakht, inchunin mahluli tazriqi meshavand. Har doru metavonad chand shakl (khoka, qurs, mahlul, marham va g.) doshta boshad.
A. d.-hoi moe (obaki, soil, raqiq) chuninand: mahlul, naqe, tabikh (matbikh), tafin, qiyom (ekstrakt), mikstura, luob, emulsiya, suspenziya.
Mahlul dar natijai dar yagon moddai halkunanda hal shudani dorui sakht yo moe hosil meshavad. Baroi tayyor kardani mahlul beshtar obi taqtiri, bazan etanol, glitserin, ravgani moe (ravgani vazelini, zaytun, ravgani shaftolu, oftobparast)-ro istifoda mebarand. SHaffof budani mahlul shart ast; dar on zarrahoi muallaq yo tahshon naboyad boshand. Mahlulro menushand, tarbandi va gargara mekunand, ba gush, chashm, bini mechakonand. Meyori mahlul bo qoshuq (khurd, miyona, kalon) va manzurka (istakonchai chenakdor) muayyan karda meshavad. Baze mahlulhoro, ki dar tarkibashon moddahoi zahrnok dorand yo tasirashon purzur ast, qatra-qatra istemol menamoyand. Mahluli doruhoi baroi tabobati illati bini, chashm va gush peshbinshudaro niz qatra-qatra istifoda mebarand.
Naqu (naqe) va tabikh (dorui dar ob jushonida)-ro bo rohi dar ob tar karda mondan yo jushonidani barg, resha va dig. uzvhoi rastanihoi dorui (to 1000S rasidani harorati ob 5 – 15 daq. mejushonand) tayyor mekunand. Dar tarkibi naqu va tabikh gayr az unsuri tasirbakhsh hamchunin moddahoi ahamiyati davoi nadoshta (qand, tanin, pigment va g.), vale bezarar niz hastand. Naqu va tabikh tez vayron meshavad, az hamin sabab dukhtur onhoro faqat baroi dar muddati 3 – 4 ruz istemol namudan tavsiya medihad; dar dorukhona boshad, onhoro yak-du soat qabl az giriftan tayyor mekunand. Dar khona naqe va tabikhro dar joi salqin boyad nigoh dosht. In navi doruro asosan menushand, bazan baroi tarbandi yo chayqondanu gargara kardani dahon, gulu va g. istifoda mebarand.
Tafin (usora, sibga) moei shaffofest, ki tavvasuti spirt (spirtu ob yo spirtu efir) az ashyoi khushki rastanihoi shifobakhsh dar korkhonahoi dorusozi (biduni jushonidan) tayyor mekunand. Odatan, tafinro qatra-qatra istemol mekunand. Nisbat ba naqeu tabikh tami doru ustuvor ast va der mepoyad. Tafinro dar joi toriki khona, ki haroratash mutadil ast, dar shishachai dahonash mahkam nigoh medorand.
Qiyom (javohirdoru) ham monandi tafin davoest, ki az ashyoi khushki nabototi shifobakhsh tahiya mekunand. Farqi qiyom az tafin dar on ast, ki darajai gilzatash har khel (obaki, galiz yo khushk) meshavad. Istemoli qiyom ba darajai galizii on vobasta ast: agar qiyom obaki boshad, qatra-qatra menushand, galizu sakht boshad, az on dar dorukhona yo fabrikai dorusozi hab yo qurs (tabletka) mesozand.
Tafin va qiyomro adviyoti jolinusi niz menomand. Jolinus avvalin shuda qiyomi rastaniro baroi tabobat istifoda burdaast.
Dorui luobi (luob) moei galizu chasponest, ki dar natijai dar ob hal shudan yo varamidani moddahoi luobii mukhtalif (mas., zifti arabi, shilmi darakhti zardolu, tukhmi zagir, bekhi salab) hosil karda meshavand. Luob pust va yo luobpardahoro rupush namuda, onhoro az angezishi omilhoi mukhtalif, az jumla tasiri baze payvasthoi khimiyavi emin medorad. Odatan, luobro hamchun juzi tarkibii doruhoi moe istifoda mebarand.
Emulsiya (mustahlab) dorui moe buda, dar on zarrahoi dar ob halshavandai yagon moei digar (ravgan, balason, yane balzam) dar holati muallaq qaror dorand. Emulsiya moei yakkhelai shirmonand ast. Odatan, ba tarkibi emulsiya doruhoero dokhil mekunand, ki onho tami noguvor dorand yo pardahoi luobiro meangezand. Azbaski emulsiya tez vayron meshavad, onro ziyoda az 3 – 4 ruz istifoda burdan mumkin nest. Zarfi doruro dar joi salqin nigoh doshta, onro pesh az istifoda metakonand.
Suspenziya nave az doru buda, dar on zarrahoi maydai davo (moddai sakht) dar yagon moe (ob, ravgani naboti, glitserin) muallaq meboshand. Suspenziyaro dar surate tayyor mekunand, ki agar moddai dorui dar mahlul tamoman hal nashavad. Pesh az istifoda suspenziyaro khub takon medihand.
Mikstura (dorui omekhta) dorui obaki buda, onro az omekhtani chand moddahoi doruii gunogun tahiya mesozand. Ba tarkibi mikstura naqu, matbikh, tafin, qiyom, emulsiya va dorui khoka (novobasta ba hal shudan yo nashudanash dar ob)-ro dokhil kardan mumkin ast. Mikstura beshtar baroi nushidan tavsiya meshavad. Zarfi miksturadorro pesh az istemoli doru takonidan lozim ast. Agar mikstura dar tarkibash naqu, matbikh yo emulsiya doshta boshad, onro dar joi salqin nigoh medorand.
Marham – khamirai narmu mahin meboshad. Az doru va asos, yane ravgani rastani, hayvonot, moddahoi ravganmonand, mahsuli korkardi neft va moddahoi sintezi iborat ast. Marhamro faqat baroi molidan ba pust va pardahoi luobi tain mekunand. Bazan mavodi doruiro niz, ki tavassuti pust va luobpardaho ba khun jabbida meshavand, hamchun marham istifoda mebarand. Dar in mavrid marhamhoro bo maqsadi tasir rasonidan ba illate, ki dar uzvhoi darun paydo shudaast, kor mefarmoyand. Marhamro dar shishai dahonash mahkam yo sanochak dar joi salqin nigoh doshtan lozim ast.
Marhami moe (linimitho) az marhami muqarrari bo namudi khud farq mekunad. On moei gafs buda, dar harorati badan ob meshavad. Faqat baroi ba pust molidan kor mefarmoyand.
Hamira gufta marhamero menomand, ki tarkibash az 25% moddai khoka iborat ast (darajai gilzati on ba khamir monand meboshad). Hamira dar sathi pust nisbat ba marham der mepoyad va moeotro jabbida megirad. Binobar in, onro asosan baroi tabobati amrozi pust tamin mekunand.
SHamak (suppozitoriya) bo khosiyati khud az digar A. d. farq dorad. Vay dar harorati khona tagyir nameyobad, vale dar garmii badan ob meshavad. SHamak maqadi va mahbali meshavad. SHamaki maqadiro ba rudai rost va shamaki mahbaliro ba mahbal vorid mesozand. SHamakhoi maqadi angushtshakl buda, nugi onho nimdoira ast. Onhoro nafaqat baroi tabobati amrozi rudai rost, balki baroi muolijai digar uzvhoi dokhili niz kor mefarmoyand (moddahoi davoii on tavassuti luobpardai rudai rost jabbida meshavad).
SHamakhoi mahbali lunda, bayzashakl yo pahnaki nugashon nimdoira meboshand. Asosan baroi tabobati bemorihoi uzvhoi jinsii zanona istifoda megardand. Dar tarkibi bazei onho dorui ziddi bordori mavjud ast, ki baroi peshgirii haml kor mefarmoyand. Davoi tarkibi shamakho zud ba khun jabbida meshavad, binobar in onhoro bo maslihati dukhtur va az rui voyai tainkardai u istifoda burdan lozim ast. SHamakhoro dar kogazi mumandud, sellofan yo folga pechonda, dar joi salqin va khushk nigoh medorand.
Ba A. d.-hoi sakht khoka, gurusha, qurs, draje va hab mansuband.
Hoka baroi poshidan va istemol kardan peshbini shudaast. Ba voyaho (doza) judo karda nameshavad. Hokahoero, ki baroi istemol peshbini shudaand, bo shir, ob yo obi madani (1/4 – 1/2 istakon) menushand; bazei onhoro ba voyaho niz judo mekunand. Hokahoe, ki bo voyaho judo karda nashudaand, chandon zahrnok nestand. Dukhtur istemoli onhoro bo qoshuqcha yo qoshuq tain mekunad. Hokahoi ba voya judokardaro dar dorukhonaho dar khaltachahoi kogazii safed, bazan (agar zarur boshad) dar khaltachahoi pergamenti yo mumandud ba furush mebarorand. Dorui khoka dar gilofa (kapsula)-ho niz ba furush barovarda meshavad.
Gilofa jildi makhsusest baroi doruhoi khoka, khamira yo moe, ki voyai aniq doshta, baroi nushidan peshbini shudaand. Dar shakli gilofa asosan doruhoero istehsol mekunand, ki tami nokhush dorand yo luobpardai medayu rudahoro ozor medihand. Du shakli gilofaho mavjud ast: jelatinavi va ohari (krakhmali). Baze gilofaho az meda guzashta, faqat dar ruda zeri tasiri muhiti ishqorii on hal meshavand. Gilofaro nakhoida furu mebarand. Kushoda istifoda burdani on tavsiya nameshavad.
Gurusha (granula) donachahoi shaklan gunogun meboshad. Baroi istemol peshbini shudaast. Tarzi istifodai on misli dorui khoka ast. Dar baze mavridho onro pesh az istemol muvofiqi nishondodi dukhtur yo navishtajoti khudi doru dar ob hal kardan lozim meoyad.
Qurs (tabletka) shakli kulcharo dorad; bazan darozruya niz meshavad. Dar korkhonahoi dorusozi tayyor menamoyand. Baroi istifoda khele muvofiq buda, duru daroz meistad, tami noguvori doru niz chandon his nameshavad. Baze qurshoro qabat-qabat istehsol mekunand (dar rohi hozima az rui tartibi muayyan jabbida meshavand).
Vobasta az khosiyati doru va shakli bemori tarzi istifodai qursho gunogun ast. Bisyor vaqt onhoro baroi oshomidan tain mekunand. Binobar in, dar beshtarin mavridho qursro nakhoida furu burdan lozim ast (khosa agar on jildi makhsus doshta boshad). Qurshoe niz mavjudand, ki onhor khoida istemol kardan tavsiya meshavad. Baze qurshoro to purra hal shudanashon dar zeri zabon nigoh medorand (mas., nitroglitserin, izadrin, metiltestosteron va g.). Dar kadom holate, ki naboshad, mavridi istifodai qurs tainoti dukhturro rioya kardan lozim ast.
Draje dorui sakht buda, tami shirin dorad. CHunin doruho lunda va yakrang meshavand. Drajero nakhoida furu mebarand.
Hab (pilyula) shakli lundaro doshta, baroi nushidan peshbini shudaast. Habro odatan dar dorukhonaho tayyor mekunand. Az mavodi dorui va khamirai makhsus iborat ast.
Ba A. d. hamchunin davohoi naboti (rastanihoi dorui) dokhil meshavand. Onhoro dar obi jush tar karda, sipas bo latta mepechonand va ba pust meguzorand. Bazan khushkokhushk garm mekunand va ba khaltacha girifta ba joi dardmand menihand. Az rastanihoi dorui choy va jushob niz tayyor karda meshavad. Dar khaltachahoi kogazin, qutticha yo shishachaho ba furush mebarorand. Onhoro dar joi khushk nigoh doshtan lozim ast.
Ba A. d.-hoi tazriqi (ineksiya) mahlulhoi obi va ravgani, suspenziyaho, emulsiyaho, hamchunin khokayu qursho mansuband. Onho qabl az istifoda dar mahlul hal karda meshavand. Talaboti asosi baroi onho tamyiz budanashon ast, zero asosan baroi tazriq istifoda megardand (ba zeri pust, mushak, ba varid, sharayon, javfi badan). Dar in mavridho voyai aniqi doru ba nazar girifta meshavad (samari tabobat niz zudtar faro merasad). Baroi tazriqi doru mahoratu donishi makhsus lozim ast, binobar in onro hatto dar sharoiti khona niz boyad kormandi tib (hamshirai shafqat, feldsher) ijro kunad.
Oid ba tarzi nigoh doshtani doru dar sharoti khona nig. Doruqutti.

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