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ASAL

honey3ASAL, angubin, angabin, salvo, shahd, mahsuli zanburi asal, ki az shahd va gardi gul hosil meshavad. Dar Tojikiston zanburparvari chun sohai mustaqili khojagii khalq s. 1934 ba vujud omadaast. Zamonhoi qadim aholi A.-ro asosan az kovokii darakhton megirift.
A. du nav meshavad: A.-i gul (az shahd) va A.-i shakarak (az shakaraki rastani). A.-ro zanburi asal baroi gizoi khud hosil mekunad. A.-i shakarak va A.-i gule, ki bo A.-i shakarak omekhta ast, baroi gizoi zanbur kor nameoyad (onro kasal va mahv mesozad). Tarkibi khimiyavii A. ba namudi rastani, sharoiti mahal va fasli sol vobasta ast. A.-i gul behtarin navi A. buda, 15 –20% ob, 80 – 85% karbogidrat (glyukoza, fruktoza, skharoza, maltoza) va 0,4% safeda dorad. Dar tarkibi A. 15 kislotai organiki (kislotai seb, javhari limu, kislotai glyukonat va g.), fermenthoi gunogun (amilaza, katalaza, glyukozooksidaza va g.), qarib 50 anvoi moddai khushbuy, 35 mavodi minerali, vitaminhoi V2, PP, S, V6, K, E va bisyor alkoloidu moddahoi rangdeh mavjudand. Vazni khosi A. 1,416 (hangomi 20% budani obi tarkibash) ast; 1 kg A. 3200 kaloriya garmi medihad. A.-e, ki zanbur nav hosil kardaast, moe meboshad. Minbad on dar natijai bukhor shudani ob rasida, galiz meshavad. Bad az rasidani A. zanbur surokhhoi shonro bo mum rust mekunad. A.-i nav kashida vaqti nigoh doshtan tadrijan sakht shavad ham, sifati on tagyir nameyobad. Hangomi muayyan kardani sifati A. pesh az hama gilzat, chaspaki, tam, buy, rang, mavjudiyati kafk, hubobchahoi havo va g.-ro ba nazar megirand. Rangi A. safed (A.-i kiprey), zard (A.-i aqoqiyo, zirfun, oftobparast) va buri tira (A.-i marjumak va khulanj) buda, vaqti garm kardan (to 370S), siyohtob megardad. Tam va bui A. ba gardi guli rastanihoi asaldeh vobasta ast. A.-i shakarak tirarang buda, bazan badtamu bebuy meshavad. A.-i shakarak nisbat ba A.-i gul sakharoza, moddahoi minerali va kislotahoi organikii beshtar dorad.
Miqdori shahdi guli rastaniho gunogun ast. Darakhtoni meva binobar barmahal gul kardanashon oilai zanburi A.-ro navbahoron bo gizo tamin mekunand. Az darakhtoni meva khususan guli gelos, seb, nok, olubolu, olu, bektoshi, qot, tamashk sershahd meboshand. Zanbur az 1 ga bogoti darakhtoni meva 20 – 30, bektoshi to 50 – 60 va tamashkzor to 100 kg A. hosil mekunad. Baze solho dar natijai musoidii obu havo az 1 ga tamashkzor to 200 kg A. girifta meshavad. Guli darakhtoni subtropiki – aflesun, noranj, limu, shaftolu, bodom, bihi va g. niz sershahd ast.
A. gizoi khushhazm buda, az qadimulayyom chun davo niz istifoda meshavad. Ba aqidai Jolinus «…hej chiz behtar az asal nest dar naf az baroi badan va iloji aksari marazho va rasonandai quvvai davohost bo surat dar tamomi badan». Abualii Sino A.-ro davoi vase va tozakunandai ragho, khorijkunandai fasodi azoi dokhili, peshgirikunandai khiragii chashm va barhamdihandai dardi gulu hisobidaast. Muhammadhusayn ibni Muhammadi Okili dar «Makhzanu-l-adviya» ovardaast, ki A. «…jihati tanqiyai sadr va qasabai riya va istisqo, yaraqon va sipurz va barham dodani sanghoi gurdavu masona va dushvorii bavl va anvoi riyoh va baroi dafi sumum (zahrho) nofe ast». A. mubodilai moddahoi organizmro murattab karda, surfa, bemorihoi medavu ruda, dil, jigar va g.-ro shifo mebakhshad. Bo maqsadi khushbuy gardonidan yo dodani rangu tami dilkhoh bazan chand nav A.-i az rastanihoi gunogunro ba ham meomezand.
Bo aqidai tabiboni khalqi A.-ro bo ordi gandum khamir sokhta guzoshta bandand, varamhoro tahlil medihad, puchakhoro mepazonad; bo namak sirishta bandand, doghoi zarba va latkhurdaro, ki kabud shuda boshand, nest megardonad; bo obi zira daromekhta bikhurand, bar ziddi zahri zanburug davo ast. A.-ro bikhurand badanro az moddahoi zararnoki nodarkor pok mesozad, girehi raghoro mekushoyad, balgami chaspak va rutubathoro nest mekunad, sust va notavon shudani azo, obvaram, zardparvin, illati sipurz, dushvorii shoshidan, bodhoi gunogun, varami rudahoro raf menamoyad, medaro quvvat medihad, ishtihoro mekushoyad, bohro neru ato mekunad. Hususan bo obi boron daromekhta bikhurand, ba uzvhoi badan ob medavonad, bohi sustgashtaro quvvat medihad, peshobro meronad, zakhmi rudaho va khichakro pok mesozad, sangi gurdaro mayda karda merezonad.
A.-ro dar chalakhoe, ki az chubi zirfun, buk, chinor, sangbed (verba), chalguza (kedr) va rozdor sokhta shudaand, nigoh medorand. Qabl az andokhtani A. chalakhoro bo obi garmu soda shusta, mum yo parafini toza (az darun) molidan lozim ast. A.-ro tavre boyad nigoh dosht, ki bui chizhoi digar ba on narasad. Bazan ba joyhoi dur A.-ro dar bidonho (25 kg) ham mebarand. Dar bidon yo chalak nomi khojagi, nav, muhlati kashida shudan va vazni A. navishta meshavad. A.-ro, odatan, dar zarfhoi shishagii dahonashon mahkam ba furush mebarorand.
S. 2008 dar khojagihoi jumhuri 134480, az jumla dar muassisahoi kishovarzi 7045, aholi 117780 va khojagihoi dehqoni 9655 oilai zanburi asal mavjud bud. S. 2009 dar Tojikiston 2699 t A. istehsol karda shudaast. Dar poytakhti jumhuri har sol «Idi asal» bo shukuhu shahomat jashn girifta meshavad. Dar on asalparvaron az tamomi shahru navohi mahsuloti khudro baroi namoish va furush meguzorand.

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