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ANGLIYA DAR SOLHOI 50 – 60-UMI ASRI XIX

Boloravii sanoat va tijorat. Dar sanoat va tijorati solhoi 50 – 60-umi asri XIX Angliya mavqei hukmronro ishgol kard. On ba tabadduloti sanoatii dar Angliya baamalomada va goratgarii berahmonai mustamlikaho vobastagy dosht. YAke az sababhoi digari muhime, ki boloravii bosurati sanoati Angliyaro tamin kard, barhamdihii usuli farmonfarmoiyu mankuny va ba ivazi on jory namudani tijorati ozod meboshad. Bekor kardani qonun dar borai noni soli 1846 va boj ba molhoi ba Angliya voridshavanda, isboti in sukhanho meboshand. Az chunin kor sanoat va sohibkoroni Angliya burd kardand. Onho dar bozorhoi khud az raqobati raqiboni khornji nametarsidand, chunki sifati molhoi anglisy baland bud. Dar solhoi 60-um sanoatchiyoni Angliya tavonistand, ki bo Faronsa, Belgiya, Italiya, Avstriya va davlathoi Germaniya yakchand shartnomahoi nafovari tijorati bandand.

Sarmoyadoroni Angliya bozorhoi jahonro bo yorii tijorati ozod az mol pur karda, bo in roh ba dastgirii sarmoyadoroni yak qator mamlakathoi jahon noil shudand. Onho dar mamlakathoi khud tojironi Angliyaro dastgiri mekardand. Dar navbati khud sarmoyadoron va tojironi on mamlakatho bozorhoi Angliyaro az mahsuloti kishovarzi tamin karda, az on jo molhoi sanoatii nisbat ba mamlakathoi khud arzontaru balandsifattarro kharida meburdand va bo in roh daromadi kalon megirifgand.

Angliya – Ustokhonai jahon. Dar solhoi 50-60-umi asri XIX Angliya ba “ustokhonai jahon” tabdil yoft. Dar in mamlakat rohi ohan bar digar namudhoi naqliyot golib baromad, kishtihoi bugi kishtihoi bodbondorro az istifoda tang karda barovardand. Dar natijai in az yak jo ba joi digar burdani borho teztar va arzontar gardid. Dar Angliya in navgoni ba rivoju ravnaqi tijoratu sohibkori kumak rasonid.

Solhoi 1857 va 1866 iqtisodiyoti Angliyaro buhroni barziyodi istehsolkuny faro girift, vale on dar in mamlakat tamoyuli ru ba taraqqii puravchi sarmoyadoriro bozdoshta natavonist. Baroy isboti in khulosa chand misol meorem. Dar okhiri solhoi 60-um dar Angliya istehsoli angisht nisbat ba Germaniya 5 marotiba va nisbat ba IM A 4 barobar afzud. On nisfi chuyani dar jahon istehsol kardameshudagiro istehsol mekard Muvaffaqiyati Angliya makhsusan dar sanoati bofandagi benazir bud. Solhoi 60-um vay dar sanoati khud nakhi pakhtaro barobaei jami hamai mamlakathoi jahon istifoda mekard.

Soli 1850 dar korkhonahoi bofandagii Angliya 21 mln dukhi mekhaniky istifoda burda meshud. Soli 1870 boshad, on ba 35 mln adad rasid. Iqtidori harakatdihandahoi darunsuzi dar sanoat va naqliyot mamulbuda dar soli 1870 ba 4,5 mln quvvai asp rasid. Dar in soha Angliya az Germaniya 1,5 barobar va az Faronsa 2 barobar pesh guzasht.

Sokhti siyosii Angliya. Dar solhoi 50-60-umi asri XIX Angliya na tanho dar sanoat va tijorat bo surat pesh raft. Balki dar tarzi idorakunii davlat niz digargunihoi jiddi ba amal omadand. Dar in davra dar Angliya hukmronii siyosii burjuaziyai sanoaty muqarrar gardid. Sokhti parlamentii idorakunii Angliya mustahkam shud. Hanuz soli 1832 palatai jamoaho tashkil yofta bud. Dar solhoi 50 – 60-um in palata palatai lordhoro fishor doda, ba nerui duyumdaracha tabdil dod. In kor tasiri siyosii hokimiyati malikaro khele past farovard. Malika Viktoriya (1837 – 1901) va hamsari u shohzoda Albert Saksen-Kaburgy hamesha ba korhoi parlament dakholat mekardand. Onho misli peshtara hokimiyatro ba nafi ashrofoni feodali va ruhoniyon istifoda burdani budand. Vale dar sharoiti nav in kor ba onho mushkil gardid. Digar ba malika muyassar nameshud, ki ba tatbiqi qonunkhoi qabulkardai parlamenti mamlakat khalal rasonad.

On vaqt dar Angliya hamagi 2 hizb mavjud bud – konservatoron (tori) va liberalho (vigi). Az soli 1832 cap karda dar mamlakat asosan liberalho hukmroni mekardand, vale onho qonunho va urfu odathoi asrimiyonagiro bekor nakardand. Dodkhohho dar dodgohhoi Angliya misli peshtara murofiai dodgohiro bo libosi mantiya va muysari suny doyr mekardand. Donishgokhkhoi Oksford va Kembrich sokhti tabakaviyu ashrofii idora va talimro nigoh medoshtand.

Dar hukmronii Angliya hizbhoi konservativy va liberal» bo hamdigar raqobat mekardand. Goh yake va goh digare ba sari hokimiyat meomad. Ba liberalho muyassar shud, ki muddati duru daroz konsernayurinro az hokimiyat dur kunand. Dar zarfi solhoi 1846-1868 toriho hamagi 3 sol dar sari qudrat budandu halo < (solhoi 1852, 1858 – 1859 va 1867 – 1868). 17 soli digari in muddat liberalho dar sari hokimiyat meistodand. Onhoro aksariyati guruhhoi siyosii ba toriho zidbuda dastgiri menamudand, zero tarzi hukmronii in hizbro khub mepisandidand.

Dar intikhoboti parlamenty hamon hizbe golib mebaromad, ki ba jonibdorii on ziyoda az nisfi intikhobkunandagon ovoz dihand. Hamon hizbe galaba karda metavonist, ki ba aksariyati ommai khalq – sohibkoron, sarmoyadsron, tojiron, kishovarzon va ziyoiyon naf ovarda tavonad. Siyosati iqtisodii liberalho ba taraqqiyoti sanoatu tijorat va ba hayoti jamiyatii Angliya beshtar vorid shudani arzishhoi demokrati sharoiti musoid faroham meovard.

Ba imperiyai mustamlikavi tabdil yofgani Angliya.

Dar solhoi 50 – 60-umi asri XIX badi dar Jangi Qrim shikast khurdani Rusiya surati janghoi istilogaronai Angliya boz ham afzud. Az darajai balandi taraqqiyoti iktisodiyot va flot istifoda burda, hukumati Angliya bo har roh raqiboni khudro az bozorhoi jahon fishor doda mebarovard. Siyosati khorijii Angliyaro manfiathoi sarmoyadoron va vazifahoi istilogaronai britaniya muayyan mekardand. Agar manfiati sarmoyadoroni Angliya talab mekard, ki dar yagon davlat nerue dastgiri karda shavad, hukumat bo in kor musoidat mekard. Rohbari hamonvaqtai liberale Palmerston, ki sarvaziri Angliya ham shuda bud, bore ibroz dosht: “Britaniya ittifoqchiyonn doimy nadorad. On tanho manfiathoi do imi dorad”. Ba in nigoh nakarda baroi rupush kardani maqsadhoi aslii siyosati khorijii mamlakat diplomathoi anglis hamesha va dar hama jo dar borai khohoni sulh budani Britaniyai Kabir bardurug lof mezadand. Baroi ba dast darovardani mustamlikaho va yo tahti tasiri khud darovardani in va yo on davlat siyosatmadoroni anglis az har guna bahona istifoda meburdasl. Masalan, Angliya dar SHarqi Nazdik tarafi Turkiyaro bo on sabab shrift, ki guyo onro az tajovuzi Rusiyai podshohy difo mekarda boshad. Dar amal vay dar in jo siyosati istilogaronai khudro tatbiq namuda, Turkiyai zaifshudaro vassali khud gardonidany bud.

Angliya khalqi mustamlikahoi khudro berahmona istismor mekard. In davlat dar miyonahoi asri XIX mustamlikahoyagiro ba manbai ashyoi khom va bozori molfurushy tabdil dod. Soli I860 Angliya dar Hinduston nisbat ba tamomi davlathoi Evropa va IMA 2 marotaba ziyodtar gazvor furukhtaast. Dar khudi hamin davra hajmi molhoe, ki az Angliya baroi furush ba mamlakathoi SHarqi Dur (CHin, Jopon, Koreya va g.) burdaast, nisbat ba molkhoe, ki dar mamlakathoi Evropa furukhta bud, yakunim barobar ziyod ast. Az se yak khissai tijorati khorijii Angliya ba mustamlikaho rost meomad.

CHunin tijorat ba khaznai Angliya har sol sadho million funt-sterling daromad msovard. Sohibkoroni anglis az mustamlikaho sarvathoi afsonavy gun mekardand. Haiai in Angliyaro vodor mekard, ki siyosati istilogaronai khorijii khudro davom bidikhad. Masokhati mustamlikahoi Angliya qalamravi buzurgro tashkil mekard. Akholii onho ziyoda az 200 million nafarro tashkil medod.

Dar solhoi 1856 – 1858 Angliya. Faronsa va Rusiya az mushkilikhoi sulolai Sin isgifoda burda (shurishi shyshshho ba amal omada bud), ba gardani CHin Sozishiomai sulkhi Tyanszki (soli 1858)-ro bor kardand. Muvofiqi on CHin majbur shud, ki bandarkhoi khudro baroi tijorati khorggchy kushoyad va ba khorichiyon ichozat dnkhad, ki ba dokhili mamlakat daromada, molhoi khudro be pardokhti boch furushand. Eayr az in, CHin boyad ba golibon tovoni sang ham medod. Soli 1860 Angliya bo khamrohii Faronsa ba CHin tachovuzi nav tashkil karda, shahri Pekinro ishgol namuda, kasrhoi imperatorro gorat va bombaboron kard. Bo in rokh onho CHinro majbur kardand, ki ba shartnomai sulkhi boz ham asoratovartar imzo guzorad.

Dar solhoi 50-um Angliya va IMA ba dushi Jopon niz shart­nomai asoratovarro bor kardand. Dar solhoi 1856 – 1857 Angliya bar ziddi Eron jang karda, ba gardani in davlat ham shargnomai beadolati sulkhro bor kard. Soli 1849 boshad, shurishi sikkhkhoro dar muzofoti Panjobi Hinduston pakhsh karda, istiloi in davlatro ba okhir rasonid. Dar natijai in mamlakati buzurgi doroy 170-190 million nafar akholy doshta ba ikhtiyori shirkati buzurgi Vest-Indiya guzasht.

Dar okhiri solhoi 60-um Angliya bar ziddi Habashiston jangida, onro tobei khud gardonid. Dar solhoi 50-60-umi asri XIX Angliya dar mintaqahoi digari kurai zamin niz siyosati zabtkoronai khudro davom dod. Hamin tariq, Britaniyai Kabir ba imperiyam buzurgi mustamlikavy tabdil yoft.

Harakati intimoy. Dar natijai tarakkiyogi sanoati fabriky va dar onho ba tavri vase istifoda burda shudani moshinhs mekhnat shiddatnoku purmakhsultar gardid. Bo hamin rokh sohibkoron qusuri to 10 soat kam kardani ruzi koriro barovardand. Mukhochirat az Angliya ba I MA, Kanada va Avstraliya dar solhoi 50-um va 60-um nihoyat ziyod shud. Tanho solhoi 1852 – 1868 Angliyaro ziyoda az 3 million nafar odamon tark kardand. Baroy hamin dar sanoat quvvai korgary namerasid. Az in sabab muzdi mehnati korgaron afzuda, ba pastshavii kharakati chartisty ovarda rasonid. In kholat dar navbati khud obruyu etibori burjuaziyaro dar bayni mekhnatkashon ziyod kard.

Harakati korgary asosan mokhiyati iktisody dosht. Korgaron tez- tez korpartoy mekardand, to ki sohibkoron muzdi mekhnati onhoro ziyod kunand. Avchi balandi kharakati korpartoy ba solhoi 1857-1860 rost omad. Aksariyati korpartoikho dar on davra baron korgaron bomuvaffakiyat anchom meyoftand. Sohibkoron tavassugn guzashtkunikhoi khud ba korgaron va tabakakhoi digari mekhnatkashon isbot namudand, ki dar bayni tabakakhoi intimoy muroso mumkin ast.

Ittifokkhoi kasabaro dar Angliya “tred-yunionkho” menomidand. Dar avvali solhoi 50-um tred-yunionho dar mavqei az korpartoy dast kashidan va bo sohibkoron bo rohi “diplomatiki sanoaty” khal kardani mukholnfathoi mekhnaty budand.

Solhoi 60-um dar Angliya to 1600 tred-yunionho mavchud budand. Onho oloti khubi khimoyai manfiathoi azoyoni on gardidand.

Hazinai tred-yunionho sol to sol az mablag purtar meshud. Doroy mablagi kalon budan va ba sohibkoron guftushunid karda tavonistan az kormandoni ittifokkhoi kasaba donishhoi balandro taqozo mekard. Kotibhoi intikhobii peshtara, ki belug kor mekardand, ohista-ohista bo kormandoni maoshkhurg balandmalumoti kasabavy ivaz karda shudand.

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