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ANGLIYA DAR OHIRI ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX

60-umi asri XIX Angliya davlati az hama kalontarini sanoatii jahon bud. Mahz dar on jo avvalin shuda tabadduloti sanoati ogoz yoft. Moshinhoi sermahsuli anglisy mehnati hazoron odamonro sabuk mekardand. Fabrika va zavodhoi avvalin ham dar Angliya sokhta shudand. Badi Angliya tabadduloti sanoati dar mamlakathoi digari taraqqikardai jahon ba amal omadan grift.

IMA va Germaniya dar dahsolahoi okhiri asri XIX ohista- ohista va bemaylon dar istehsoli mahsuloti madany, khimiyavy va elektrotekhniki az “muallimi khud” Angliya pesh guzashtand. Hissai jahonii Angliya dar istehsoloti sanoaty muttasil kam meshud.

Dar solhoi 60-um Angliya nisfi chuyani jahoniro istehsol mekard, vale soli 1890 hamagi 28,7 foiz va soli 1913 13,2 foizi onro istehsol mekardagi shud. Hajmi istehsoli mahsulotn digari sanoaty va inchunin kishovarzy niz past shudan girift. Ba in holat buhroni iqtisodie, ki Angliyaro az ogozi solhoi 70-um to avvali solhoi 90-um faro shrifta bud, niz sabab shud. Tajhizoti tekhnikin korkhonahoi sanoatii Angliya kuhna shud. Mamlakathoi digar boshand, az sababi on ki taraqqiyoti sanoatii onho dertar ogoz yofta bud, imkoniyat doshtand, ki dar istehsolot tajhizoti hozirazamoni nisbat ba Angliya sermahsultarro ba kor barand. Az sababi janghoi duru darozi istilogaronaash Angliya majbur shud, ki beshtar baroi zarurati jang makhsulot barorad. CHunin davlat der yo zud dar raqobat bo davlathoi digar shikast mekhurad. Hamin tavr ham shud.

Dar okhirhoi asri XIX – avvali asri XX maqomi “ustokhonai jahon” az Angliya ba IM A va Germaniya guzasht. In davlatho dar jahon muvofiqan ba joyhoi yakumu duyum baromada, Angliyaro ba joi seyum farovardand.

Dar Angliya hukmron gardidann oligarkhiyai moliyavi. Bukhroni iqtisodni okhiri asri XIX ba rafti tarakkiyoti Angliya tasir rasonid. Dar on jo markazonidani sarmoya ba amal omad. Ittihodiyahoi avvalini inhisori dar sanoaty khimiya, sobunpazi, kalobarey, istehsoli tamoku va gayra tashkil yoftand. Dokhilshavii Angliya ba davrai imperializm ba purzurshavii shirkathoi inhisori sabab shud. In ravand dar faoliyati bankho beshtar dida meshud. Dar arafai Jangi yakumi jahoni 12 banki angliey to 70 foizi sarmoyai bankiro dar ikhtiyori khud nigoh medoshtand. Mahz onho dar iqtisodiyot va moliyai mamlakat maqom i farmonfarmoro sohib budand.

Dar sanoat ham ittihodiyahoi gunoguni inhisori ba vuchud meomadand. YAke az khususiyathoi sarmoyadorii inhisorii angliya az on iborat bud, ki dar sanoaty sabuk nisbat ba sanoaty vaznin shirkathoi inhisori ziyodtar budand. SHirkati “Kauts” dar sohai istehsoli kaloba inhisor shuda bud, shirkati “Dornan-Long” dar sohai istehsoli kishti, shirkati “Armstrong – Uitvors” boshad, dar istehsoli lavozimoti harby hukmron bud.

Baze inhisorho dar mustamlikaho baroi istehsol kardani ashyoi khom makhsus gardonida shuda budand. Dar hamin qator yake az inhisorkhoi kalontarini Angliya “SHirkati Afrikai Januby” meistod. On ba istehsoli tilloi zaminkhoi nopaydokanori Afrikai Januby mashgul bud. Sarmoyadoroni anglis sarvati khudro asosan dar bankho nigoh medoshtand. In holat imkonnyat namedod, ki sanoati mamlakat bo surati tez taraqqi kunad.

YAgon davlati digari jahon misli Angliya dar ikhtiyori eankho in qadar puli ziyod nadosht. Sohibkoroni anglis sarmoyai khudro beshtar ba mustamlikaho mebarovardand. Barovardani sarmoya ba mamlakathoi digari Evropa, IMA va Amerikai Lotiny dar joi duyum meistod.

Dar okhirhoi asri XIX – avvali asri XX yakshavii sarmoyai sanoati va sarmoyai bankii Angliya ba amal omad. Dar natija dar mamlakat oligarkhiyai moliyavy hukmron gardid.

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