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AMMIAK

amiakAMMIAK (az yun. hals ammoniakos – navshodir), NH3, payvasti khimiyavii nitrogen bo gidrogen. Dar tabiat dar natijai tajziyai moddahoi nitrogendori organiki hosil meshavad. A. gazi berang buda, bui tezi nafasgir dorad. Omekhtai A.-i khushk bo havo metarkad.
A. moddai khele faol ast. Az hisobi jufti elektronhoi taqsimnagashtai nitrogen ba reaksiya medaroyad. Binobar ba molekulai A. payvast gashtani proton ioni ammoniy hosil meshavad. On hamchun ioni metallhoi ishqori bo ob va anioni kislotaho payvast shuda, gidroksidi ammoniy va namak hosil mekunad. Baroi A. reaksiyai joygiri niz khos ast. Metallhoi ishqori va ishqorzamini bo A.-i moe yo gazshakl ba reaksiya dokhil shuda, nitrid yo amid hosil mekunand. A. bo sulfur, galogenho, karbon, SO2 va g. niz ba reaksiya medaroyad. Dar laboratoriya A.-ro dar natijai bo ohaki shukufta garm kardani khloridi ammoniy ba dast medarorand. A. az organizm dar shakli namakhoi ammoniy (khosa sulfati ammoniy) ba vositai peshob ikhroj meshavad. Dar asnoi dar voyai khurok, afzaliyat doshtani safeda, inchunin hangomi bemorihoi vaznini jigar (mas., sirroz), miqdori A. dar tarkibi khun duchand megardad.
Bui tezi A. retseptorhoi luobpardai biniro angekhta, faoliyati nafasgiriro tez va fishori khunro baland mekunad. Binobar in hangomi behushi va zahroludi az alkuhul bugi spirti navshodirro buy mekashonand (baroi ehtiyot pakhtaero, ki dar spirti navshodir tar karda shudaast, az peshi bini 5 sm durtar nigoh medorand). Mahluli spirtii navshodir (25 ml dar 5 l obi garm) dar amaliyai jarrohi baroi toza kardani dast istifoda meshavad (usuli Kochergin-Spasokukotskiy).
Dar mavridi zahroludii muzmin az A.-i gazshakl mubodilai moddaho khalaldor shuda, fishori khun past mefaroyad, nevrasteniya va bemorihoi iltihobii rohi nafas sar mezanand.
Bo maqsadi peshgirii zahroludi az A. ba qoidahoi bekhatarii mehnat rioya kardan lozim ast.

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