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ALVEOLA

alveolaALVEOLA (az lot. alveolus – chashmak, chuqurcha, hubobcha), 1) qismi intihoi gadud, ki chashmakmonand ast; onro atsinus niz menomand; 2) qismi azoi dastgohi nafas. Hubobchai bo boftahoi payvandi farogi- riftaest, ki ba chavfi bronkhiolaho kusho- da meshavad. Az berun ba on kapillyarhoi endoteliy, ki mubodilai gazro bayni A. va khun tamin mesozand, chaspidaand; A.-ho «vohid»-i khurdtarini shush mebo- shand. Onho shakli hubobcharo doshta az hamdigar bo parda (gafsiash 2 – 8 mkm) chudo shudaand. SHushi odami kalonsol 600 – 700 mln. A. dorad. Devorai A.-horo az berun shabakai muragho (kapillyarho), ki az arteriyai shush ogoz meyoband, faro giriftaand. Sathi dokhilii devorai A. bo epiteliyai yakqabata pushida shudaast. Dar A.-ho makrofagho niz mavchudand. Onho huchayrahoi makhsus buda, A.-ro az tasiri siroyat hifz menamoyand. Vazifai A.-ho az mubodilai havo iborat meboshad. Dar tarkibi havoi A.-ho oksigen nisbat ba havoi khuni varidii muragho ziyod, vale gazi karbonat kam ast. Binobar tafovu- ti bayni fishori gazho oksigen ba khuni muraghoi A. meguzarad; gazi karbonat bo- shad, ba samti muqobil harakat mekunad. Qutri muraghoi A. nisbat ba qutri erot- sit khurd ast. Dar natichai in eritrositho zeri fishori khun ba A.-ho vorid gashta, deformatsiya meshavand; beshtarin hissai sathi onho bo A. tamos paydo mekunad. In imkon medihad, ki miqdori ziyodi oksigen furu burda shavad; 3) dandonkhonai chog, ki reshai dandon choygir shudaast.

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