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AKKLIMATIZATSIYA

akklimatizatsiyaAKKLIMATIZATSIYA, mutod, khugiri ba obu havo, ba sharoiti navi iqlim muvofiq gardidani inson. A.-i odam yake az shaklhoi mutobiqat (adabtatsiya) buda, boisi tagyiroti charayoni mubodilai moddaho va digargunihoi vazoifii organizm megardad. Qobiliyati A. shudan dar ravandi inkishofi hayot dar rui Zamin ba vuchud omada, bo mintaqahoi gunoguni iqlimi va tagyiroti davrii iqlim zich vobasta ast. A.-ro omilhoi muhiti tabii ba vuchud meorand. Onho az sharoiti mahali peshtara khele farq mekunand, mas., harorati baland va past, sernami, khushki, afkanishoti ultrabunafshi kam yo barziyod, fishori atmosferii past yo baland va g. Mavridi ba sharoiti navi sukunat odat kardani inson gayr az ravandhoi biologi hamchunin omilhoi ichtimoiyu iqtisodi (sharoiti mehnat va maishat, sifati gizo, libos, iqomatgoh va g.) ahamiyati kalon dorand.
Dar kishvari mo zarurati omukhtani ravandhoi A. binobar ba amal tatbiq namudani naqshahoi obodonii navohii kuhsor va istifodai zakhirahoi tabii dar mintaqai garm pesh omad. Tadqiqote, ki dar muassisahoi ilmii tibbi guzaronida shudaand, imkon medihand, ki dar nohiyahoi ru ba obodi samti charayoni A. peshbini gardida, tartibi ba maqsad muvofiqi tagziya va dig. masoili zindagii aholi muqarrar karda shavand. Odamoni solim A.-ro nisbatan oson pasi sar mekunand. A. va mutobiqat dar sharoiti dushvori tabii (mas., dar SHimoli Aqso, Antarkti- da, ki mumkin ast, baze nosozgorihoi vazoifiro ba vuchud orand) boshiddat charayon khohand girift. Dar davrai shabhoi qutbi kas ruhaftoda va khobolud, vale dar davrai ruzhoi qutbi boshad, serhayachon meshavad. Hangomi kor dar havoi kushod mubodilai moddaho meafzoyad. Dar vaqti sarmoi sakht va shamol mumkin ast fishori khun past shuda, nafaskashi dushvor gardad (yane ba istiloh nafastangii qutbi ba vuchud meoyad). Dar davrai odat kardan ba iqlimi garm imkon dorad, ki ishtiho gum, faoliyati rudaho nosoz, khob nokhush va darachai muqobilati organizm ba bemorihoi siroyati sust shavad. CHunin tagyiroti vazoifi ba ikhtiloli mubodilai obu namak vobasta ast. Darachai faoliyati mushakho kohish yofta, araq ziyod, ikhrochi peshob kam, nafaskashi va nabz tez meshavad. Barobari afzudani namii havo faoliyati mekhanizmhoi mutobiqat niz tezutund megardad. A. dar sharoiti iqlimi ekvatorii beshahoi sernami tropiki baroi inson mushkiltar ast. Garmii barziyodi tan boisi garmozani va logari meshavad; dar natichai tavassuti araq bisyor ikhroch yoftani namakho tashannuchi harorati rukh menamoyad. Baroi raho yoftan az chunin holat rioyai tartibi istemoli obu namak, tagziyai durust, pushidani libosi muvofiq, dar khona guzoshtani konditsioner zarur ast. Bo mururi vaqt odam ba harorat va nami tobovar shuda, mubodilai moddaho va digar funksiyahoi organizm mutadil megardand. Dar davomi mohhoi avvali A. hangomi kori chismoni nabz sust va harorati badan past meshavad. A. bad az davrai tuloni, bazan pas az solhoi ziyod anchom meyobad.
Dar sharoiti balandkuhho mahali navi sukunat har qadar az sathi bahr baland choygir boshad, A. hamon qadar dushvor meguzarad (nig. Saqomati kuhi). Dar rafti A. faoliyati organizm tadrichan ustuvor gashta, ba meyori sokinoni doimii kuhiston barobar meshavad, vale tapishi dil, gardishi khun va darachai mubodilai moddahoi asosi qadre sust ast. Tabdili iqlim aksar vaqt ba organizm tasiri musbat niz merasonad (nig. Klimatoterapiya). Binobar in bemoron bo maqsadi peshgiri va muolichai kasaliho (mas., ziqi nafas, bemorihoi gurda va g.) ba kurortho firistoda meshavand. Qabl az rukhsatii mehnati bo dukhtur maslihat boyad kard, ki davrai murakhkhasiro dar kucho guzarondan behtar ast.Bahri bezarar gashtani A. vazi salomatii odam qablan muayyan va nomgui bemorihoe, ki baroi dar in yo on sharoiti iqlim zistan imkon namedihand, muqarrar karda meshavad. Hamchunin bunyodi mahalhoi aholinishin va manzil bo nazardoshti khususiyathoi iqlim, tamini aholi bo libosi muvofiq, tahiyai durusti khurdu khurok, peshgirii oqibathoi norasoi yo barziyodii radiatsiyai ultrabunafsh, rioyai tartibi koru maishat ahamiyati kalon dorad. Dar khotir boyad dosht, ki ba ravandi A. istemoli sharob tasiri bad merasonad. F. A. SHukurov.

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