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AKADEMIYAI GUNDISHOPUR

akademiyaAKADEMIYAI GUNDISHOPUR, Donishgohi Gundishopur, maktabi tibbi, gahvorai tibbi ilmii forsu tochik. A.-hoi 3-7 dar Gundishopur faoliyat dosht. Bo dasturi SHopuri avvalpisari asosguzori sulolai Sosoniyon Ardasheri Soson bunyod yofta bud. Peshtoqi darvozai shahrro navishtachoti «Donishu khirad az shamsher zurtar ast» oro medod. Ustodoni A. G. asarhoi tabiboni YUnonu Hindro ba zaboni pahlavi (zaboni davlatii sosoniyon) tarchuma mekardand. Onho az obruyu etibor va imtiyozhoi ziyode barkhurdor budand. Nagz donistani anatomiyai odam, dilsofona ichro kardani vazifa, khondani kitobhoi zaruri, malumoti kofi doshtan oid ba giyohhoi shifobakhsh, istifoda karda tavonistani asbobu oloti charrohi sari vaqt kumak rasondan ba bemor, begarazi dar kori tabobat, roh nadodan ba molu sarvatparasti, gamkhori va khushmuomilagi nisbati bemoron va g. az jumlai talaboti asosi nisbat ba ustodoni donishgoh mahsub meshudand. A. G. dar yak muddati kutoh ba avji rushdu kamolot rasid. Bisyor olimon az akademiyahoi mashhuri Afina va Iskandariya baroi kor ba A. G. omadand. Dar on jo tabiboni yunoni, suriyavi, hindi va forsi ahlona faoliyat doshtand. Ustodoni donishgoh dar barobari andeshidani tadbirhoi muolijavi va peshgirii bemoriho ba faoliyati ilmiyu omuzgori, tarjimai kitobho, tahiyai majmuahoi qomusi va g. mashgul meshudand. Dar A. G. ravandi talim az bakhshhoi nazariyavi va amali iborat buda, dar zaminai bemoristoni khudi akademiya surat megirift. Dar barnomai talimi donishgoh gayr az omuzishi fanhoi tibbi hamchunin omuzishi zabonu adabiyot, tarikh, ilmi nujum, sanati sukhan, falsafa va g. peshbini shuda bud. Donishjuyon ba zabonhoi pahlavi va yunoni tahsil mekardand. Saviyai donishu malakai onho bevosita dar sari bistari bemor sanjida meshud. Ba donishgoh faqat javonone qabul megashtand, ki haft juzi muhimi ilm (sarfu nahv, handasa, hisob, nujum, dialektika, ilmi maoni va bayon, musiqi)-ro omukhta, dar in bobat donishi kofi doshta boshand. A. G. kitobkhonai buzurge dosht, ki dar 250 bino joy girifta bud. Sardukhturi bemoriston hamzamon vazifai rektori donishgohro niz ijro menamud. Ba qavli muarrikhon avvalin sarvari donishgoh Bukhtishu budaast. Dar A. G. jamomadhoi ilmi barpo meshudand. Mas., s. 561 jalasai yakumi olimoni tib barguzor gasht, ki dar kori on az hamai donishgohhoi kishvarhoi digar tabibon shirkat varzidand. Jalasaro tabibi darbori Husravi avval Jibrail Durustabd (namoyandai sulolai Bukhtishu) sarvari mekard. Dar hayati A. G. gayr az donish- kadai asosii tibbi, hamchunin shubahoi digar ham vujud doshtand, ki faylasufu riyozidon, adibu munajjim va g. tayyor menamudand. Sahmi ustodoni A. G. khususan dar tahqiqu omuzishi Avesto nazarras bud. Onho tibbi Avestoro bo ilmi tibbi yunoni, hindi, tibeti nazdik sokhta, onro az mahdudiyati dini raho kardand. Tar- zu usulhoi jadidi muolija, ki tabiboni A. G. peshnihod namudaand, dar on davr az behtarinho mahsub meshud. Ustodoni donishgoh doir ba muolijai bemoriho dasturhoi gunogun talif karda, ba zaboni pahlavi risolaho menavishtand. Dar donishgoh tahiyavu istifodai doruhoi nav, khosa davohoi naboti rivoj yoft; mutakhassison dar kori tabobat az omekhtahoi tillo, nuqra, mis, ohan va payvasthoi khloru sulfatdor istifoda mekardand. A. G. ziyoda az 300 sol arzi hasti dosht. On badi istiloi arabho ru ba tanazzul ovard. Kitobkhona, bozyofthoi ilmi va barkhe az olimoni donishgoh ba poytakhti khilofati abbosiyon shahri Bagdod intiqol doda shudand. Dar A. G. bisyor olimoni namoyon koru faoliyat doshtand, ki nomi baze az onho to zamoni mo rasidaast: Bukhtishui avval (nakhustin sarvari donishgoh), Bukhtishui soni (vaf. 801), Barzuya, Abdullo ibni Muqaffai Eroni, Muhammad al-Horis ibni Kalida, Teodorus (tabi- bi nasroni, ki dar darbori SHopuri avval khidmat mekard), Sobur ibni Sahl, Sahorbukht, Mosavayh, Abuzakariyo ibni Mosavayh va g. Az nigohi tarikhi A. G. nakhustin donishgohi tibbii jahon mahsub meshavad.
Ad.: Ishoqi YU., Tojiev YA., Tarikhi mukh- tasari tibbi tojik, D., 1993; Odobi tib va pizishki dar Islom (az arabi tarjumai Latif Roshidi), Tehron, 1380 h.sh.

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