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AHMADI DONISH

Navisandai zabardast, shoir va mutafakkir Ahmad Makhdumi Donish, ki bo laqabi «Kalla» ham shuhrat dorad, soli 1826 dar Bukhoro tavallud shudaast. Padari Ahmad Mullo Mirnosir nom doshta, aslan az tumani SHofirkom buda, badho baroi tahsil ba Bukhoro omada muqimi shudaast.

Padaru modari Ahmadi Donish az ahli fazl budand. Az in ru, u savodi ibtidoiro peshi modari buzurgvorash barovardaast. Badtar Mullo Mirnosir pisarashro dar ovoni 12-solagi, yane soli 1838 ba maktabi qorigi mesuporad.

Soli 1842 Mullo Mirnosir pisarashro az on maktab girifta, ba madrasa medihad. Ahmadi Donish dar barobari tahsili madrasa, inchunin nozukihoi hunari khattotiyu lavhakorii kitobhoro khele khub yod megirad. U baroi tamini zindagi va kumak ba khonavodaashon devonhoi shoironro bo khati zeboi khud khattoti va bo hunari valoi khesh lavhakori menamud. Az in ru, u dar in hunarho niz ba tezi dar Bukhoroi onruza shuhrat paydo mekunad.

Ahmadi Donish hamai ilmhoi jorii zamonaashro az qabili zaboni arabi, mantiq, nujum, hayat, tabiiyot, riyoziyot, falsafai kalom, tib, tarikh, adabiyot va shershinosiro khele khub az khud menamoyad.

Badho yake az olimoni sharifi darbor, ki ba Ahmadi Donish haqi ustodi doshtaast, in mardi sharif sarmuhandisi darbor buda, ba Donish neki namuda, uro ba darbor davat menamoyad. Ahmadi Donish ba peshai khattoti va asosan maslihatchii amir oid ba ilmi nujum dar darbor ba faoliyat mepardozad. Pas az vafoti ustodash Amir Nasrulloh soli 1855 Ahmadi Donishro sarvori maktabi muhandisonu memoroni darbor ba joi ustodash tain mekunad. U boz ham ba amir nazdiktar meshavad va nufuzash nihoyat besh megardad. In ast, ki dar hallu fasli bisyor masalahoi siyosi, ijtimoi va ilmiyu madanii mamlakat amir az Ahmadi Donish maslihat mepursad. YAne Ahmad hamchun yake az tavonotarin olimon pazirufta meshavad. Binobar hamin ham Ahmad takhallusi khudro «Donish» intikhob kardaast. Hususan, amir dar ilmi nujum yagonai zamon budani Ahmadi Donishro his namuda, dar in joda niz tanho bo maslihati u amal mekunad.

Soli 1857 saforati amir azmi Peterburg karda bud. In saforat bo sardor elchi Mullojoni Mirokhur boyad ba vuqu mepayvast. Hadafi saforat taziya bar vafoti podshohi rus – Nikolai I va tabriki ba takht nishastani Aleksandri I bud. Safari mazkuri saforat dar shahri Peterburg se moh davom namuda, hayati saforat boyad dar in muddat ba yak qator korkhonahoi sanoati, yodgorihoi madanivu tarikhi, kitobkhonavu muzeyho va markazhovu doirahoi ilmiyu fannii poytakhti Rossiya oshno meshudand. CHunin ham shud. Ahmadi Donish va digar buzurgoni qalamravi Bukhoro takhmin mekardand, ki shoyad shahre, ki dar zeboi ba shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona raqobat mekarda boshad, nest.

Ahmadi Donish aknun fahmid, ki gumoni u va hamaqidahoyash botil budaast. Sokhtori davlati va usuli mamlakatdori, donishu jahonbinii amiru amorat va gayra to chi andoza puchu bemani va nouhdabaroyona buda, farsakhho az peshravii davlathoi garbi, ba khusus, az Rossiya qafo mondaand. Ahmadi Donish qaror dod, ki mushohidahoyashro ba amir khohad guft va amir khohishhoi Donishro amali khohad namud. Albatta, malum nest, ki amir maslihatu mashvarathoi Donishro to kadom andoza pazirufta bud. Vale in jihat malum ast, ki amir Nasrulloh soli 1860 vafot namud va ba takht amir Muzaffar ba takht nishast. In amir beshtar ba khushomalguyon tavajjuh doshta, ba olimon chandon etibore namedod.

Soli 1866 qushunhoi rus ba Toshkand hujum mekunand. Amir ba muqobili onho mekhezad. Ahmadi Donish in amali amirro nosavob hisobida boshad ham, amir uro gush namekunad. Dar natija Bukhoro az Rossiya sakht shikast khurda, ham tovoni jang va ham yak qator zaminhoyashro niz az dast medihad.

Soli 1869 amir Muzaffar baroi izhori dusti va mustahkam gardonidani irtiboti du kishvar saforati navbati omoda mesozad. Ahmadi Donishro kotibi saforati mazkur tain mekunand. Ahmadi Donish dar in safar Rossiya va mamoliki Avruporo boz ham amiqtar meomuzad. Bori digar yaqin sokht, ki amiru amorat khele az davlatdori durand. U dar in bora menavisad: «Salotini Bukhoro dar bobi sufaro (elchiho) odamoni kamtaomul va bedonishro ikhtiyor kunand, ba gumoni on ki asrori davlati mo fosh nagradad… Va hol on ki ikhtiyori in maslak ayni bezaybi va benazmii davlat boshad».

Badi bozgasht amir Muzaffar ba Ahmadi Donish rutbai ilmiyu iftikhorii «Uroq»-ro medihad. Zero Donish obrui Bukhororo himoya namuda, bisyor masalahoro bar nafi Bukhoro hal karda bud. Az in ru, amir uro ba yake az mansabhoi balandi davlati tain kardani meshavad. Ahmadi Donish ba tezi rozi nashuda, to andozae korro ba takhir meandozad. Zero Ahmadi Donish kame peshtar in qasidaro dar vasfi amir Muzaffar suruda bud, ki joe dar on qasida ovardaast:

SHunidaam ki hakime, ki podshohonro

Ba chand toifa boyad kushod rohi visol:

Nakhust olimi dono ba ilmi din, zi usul

Fururo bishinosad ba jumlai ahvol.

Digar tabibi masehodame, ki gohi kasal,

Barad zi tinati gul sardii nasimi shimol.

Digar dabiri humoyunkhate, ki gohi raqam

Nihad zi khushqadami bar rukhi Utorud khol.

Digar, sukhanvari shoir, adibi boligfan,

Ki vasfi shoh kunad dar jamei holu muhol (l).

Digar musavviri Behzoddastu Monikilk,

Ki naqshai falaku arzro kashad timsol.

Vujudi har yak az in qavm zebi mamlakat ast,

Huzuri har yak az in firqa mulkrost jamol…

Vale amir Muzaffar nihoyat kutohnazari zohir namuda, ba sari mamlakat shikanjahoi ziyode ovard. Zero Rossiya ba Bukhoro jang elon kard. In dafa ham Bukhoro shikast did va amir Muzaffar shartnomai sulh imzo kardu rozigi ba suporidani tovoni jang dod.

Pas az in amir soli 1869 ba Peterburg saforati navi khudro omoda mesozad. Ahmadi Donish boz ba in hayat dokhil karda meshavad. In dafa Donish sarmushovir tain megardad.

Okhirhoi soli 1873 hayati saforat firistoda meshavad, ki Donish dar in safar se moh dar on jo memonad va marti soli 1874 ba Bukhoro barmegardad. Aleksandri II dar in safar ba Ahmadi Donish tavajjuhi beshtar zohir menamoyad. Dar in safar Donish andeshahoi khudro ba tavri judgona dar «Risola dar nazmi tamaddun va «taovun» dokhil namudaast. U badtar in risolai khudro ba tarkibi «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» joygir kardaast. Taklifhoi Donish ba amir pisand naaftod va az in ru, amir Ahmadi Donishro az Bukhoro dur kard. Badtar amir Ahmadi Donish ba Guzor va pas az chande ba Nahrnay mefiristonad.

Soli 1885 dar Bukhoro tagyirot ba vujud meoyad. Dar in sol amir Muzaffar vafot mekunad va ba takht pisari u Amir Abdulahad sohib meshavad. In amir khudro ilmdust nishon doda, Ahmadi Donishro az Nahrnay ba Bukhoro bavat mekunad.

Ahmadi Donish ba Bukhoro omada, tanho ba faoliyati ilmi-ejodi mepardozad. U tuli solhoi daroz dar darbor ki budani amironi mangitiro donist va omukht, ki az onho umedi neki nest. Se safari Ahmadi Donish ba Rossiya uro ba kishvari peshraftai avrupoi, usuli mamlakatdori, nizomi siyosi, iqtisodi, farhangi va gayra shinos namud. Pesh az hama, Ahmadi Donish farhangi milli, ilm va tarikhi milliro khele khub medonist. Az in ru, u dar nazariya qiyos namud, ki hukumatdoroni Bukhoro az in padidaho umuman khabar nadorand. Onho tanho bo rohi zuri, qatl, zindon mardumro dar chahorchubai siyosat nigoh medorandu hukumat mekunand.

Ahmadi Donish tavassuti Rossiya to andozae ba Avrupoi Garbi niz shinosoi paydo namud. Zero u bo shakhsiyathoi judogona oshno gardida, yak andoza onhoro omukht. Masalan, Ahmadi Donish soli 1869 hanuz dar shahri Toshkand bo P.I.Poshino nom taraqqikhohi rus shinos shuda, bisyor masalahoi ijtimoiro bo u mashvarat mekunad. YO khud dar safari avvalaash bo yake az sharqshinosoni rus V.Grigorev dar Orenburg chandin muloqotho barpo namuda bud. Ahmadi Donish bo namoyandagoni artishi Rossiya niz shinos gardida, bo onho ham suhbat dosht. Az on jumla, bo polkovniki rus Kolzakov (dar safari seyum) va dar bozgashti hamin safar az Toshkand to SHahrisabz bo kapitan Stremoukhov shinos gardida bo onho dar mavzuhoi gunogun suhbatho meoroyad.

Badi safarho Ahmadi Donish mulohiza va andeshahoi khudro oid ba usuli kishvardori dar shakli kitob ba amir peshnihod menamoyad. Dar muqaddimai on menavisad, ki agar amir taklifhoi uro qabul nakunad, u ba darbor baroi faoliyat dar yagon mansabi davlati nakhohad omad. Zero amir boisroru payvasta az Ahmadi Donish talab mekard, ki yagon mansabi davlatiro qabul kunad. Taklifhoi Ahmadi Donish va kushodaguihoi u amirro aknun khashmgin sokht. Amir did, ki taklifhoi Ahmadi Donish mavqei hokimro sust mekunand.

Amir digar Donishro na tanho taklif nakard, balki mekhost uro az khud dur nigoh dorad. Amir Muzaffar bore ba nazdikoni khud gufta budaast, ki: «Man faloniro bo sufaroi (elchiyoni) davlat ba jonibi Rossiya hamroh kardam, dar okhir ba man nasihatgar shud. Man bad az in uro namefiristonam» Ahmadi Donish pas az fahmidani chunin javobhoi noadeshidai amir ba nazidikoni khud guftaast, ki: «Man ham ba nukarii in kallakharon tolib nestam».

Ahmadi Donish soli 1889 az madrasai Miri Arab yak hujra megirad va tanho ba korhoi ilmi-ejodi mashgul meshavad. YAne on korhoero, ki to in muddat ba itmom narasonida bud, khotima mebakhshad.

Poyoni umri in mutafakkir niz dar Bukhoro guzashtaast. U dar bayni mohhoi mart-apreli soli 1897 dar shahri Bukhoro vafot kardaast.

Merosi adabi va ilmii Ahmadi Donish

Ahmad Makhdumi Donish navisanda, shoir, mutafakkir, faylasuf va jomeashinosi buzurgi tojik ast, ki tuli 71-soli umri khesh az u osori garonarzishi adabi-badei va ilmi boqi mondaast. Osori Donish gunogunmavzu, sersoha va serpahlu buda, doir ba muhtavoi osor va arzishi on khudi adib chunin ishora dorad:

Hunar kadom, ki bo man nagasht ruy ba ruy.

Kadom ilm, ki bo man nakard, istiqbol?

Asarhoi Ahmadi Donish

  1. «Manozir-ul-kavokib» («Manzarai sitoraho»). Asari mazkur doir ba ilmi nujum-sitorashinosi buda, oid ba mavqe, maqomu holoti sitoraho, joygirshavii onho va zuhuri bisyor havodisu voqeoti marbuti sitoraho va gayra bahs mekunad. Muallif in asari khudro ba yake az dustonash bakhshidaast. Sanai talifi kitob soli 1865 meboshad.
  2. «Risola fi amol il-kura» («Risola doir ba amaliyot bo kura»). Ahmadi Donish dar in risola oid ba kashfiyoti ilmii asri khud, doir ba kayhon malumoti nodiri ilmi medihad. Hususan, badi muloqoti u bo kapitani rus Streomukhov, ki kapitan ba Donish du globus: ham globusi zamin va ham globusi samoro tuhfa menamoyad. Az in ru, Donish baze akhbori toza oid ba janbahoi jugrofi va astronomi medihad.
  3. «Taoduli khamsai mutahayira» («Harakati panj sitora»). Hadafi Ahmadi Donish joygirshavi va harakati Utorud, Zuhra, Mirrikh, Mushtari va Zuhal buda, risolai mazkur niz ba ilmi nujum bakhshida shudaast. YAne har yake az in jirmhoi samovi bo khosiyathoi judogonai khud sharh doda meshavad. Ahmadi Donish in asarashro soli 1883 dar shahri Guzor talif namudaast.
  4. «Meyor-ut-tadayyun» («Haddi diyonat»). Ahmadi Donish ba masalahoi muhimmi siyosi, ijtimoi, akhloqi, tarbiyavi va jamiyativu huquqi az nigohi ilmi shariat nizomi muayyan tain menamoyad. Hadafi muallif amiru amorat va sokhtori rohbarii jomearo, ki ahli diyonat meboshand, ba adlu adolat va insof davat mekunad. Donish in asarro soli 1894 talif namudaast.
  5. Dar merosi ilmii Ahmadi Donish boz yak asari tarikhii uro niz metavon nombar kard, ki mutakhassison onro «Risola yo mukhtasare az tarikhi saltanati khonadoni mangitiya»- nom nihodaand. Dar in asar sari qudrat omadani amironi mangitiya az Doniyol to Abdulahad malumot doda meshavad. Asar oid ba shakhsiyati amiron, usuli kishvardorii onho, munosibathoi dokhili-darbori va khorijii onho, khususan bo Rossiya, holati raiyat va gayra khele malumoti purarzishu sudmand medihad, ki dar in bora badtar malumot khohem dod.

Merosi adabii Ahmadi Donish asosan az anvoi gunoguni manzum va mansur iborat meboshad. Osori manzumi Ahmadi Donish janrhoi khurdi liriki: gazal, qasida, ruboi, qita va gayraro dar bar megirad. Adib in shaklhoi sheriro dar vaqthoi gunogun ejod kardaast. Osori manzumi Donish dar shakli parokanda dastras shudaast. U osori manzumi khudro dar shakli devon ba tavri alohida boqi naguzoshtaast.

Mavzuho va mandarijai goyavii ashori Ahmadi Donish gunogun buda, dar onho vasfi insonhoi sohibkasbu sohibmarifat, hunarvaronu sanatkoroni khoriji, dustiyu rafoqat, khislathoi neki odami, targibi madaniyati peshqadam, vasfi khiradu donish, nekivu nakukori, adlu adolatkhohi, vasfi ilmu farhangu hunar va gayra meboshad. Masalan, dar in qita shoir zohirparastii inson, ba shakl tavajjuh namudani kason, ojilu shitob, besabriro tanqid mekunad. Baraks sabru tahammul, botinbini, ru ovardan ba sirat-manaviyoti inson, podoshi hayotro jonibdori mekunad. U takid mekunad, ki inson pok ba dunyo meoyad, naboyad nopok ravad, balki pok boyad zindagi kunad va pok biravad. U meguyad:

Ba shakli hayati inson zi rah marav zinhor,

Tavon ba sabru tahammul shinokht javhari mard.

Agar na pok buvad, az balo nakhohad jast

V-agar dar asl buvad pok, sabr khohad kard.

Albatta, mavzui ishq va isyonhoi qalbii insoni, ehsosoti nozuki odami va vasfi mahbubavu nazokati guftori oshiq yake az mavzuhoi jovidona dar tarikhi adabiyot meboshad. In yake az mavzuhoi asosii lirikai Ahmadi Donish niz hast. CHunonchi, dar in gazal meguyad:

Abrui chun hiloli tu jonro shikor kard,

Mijgoni obdori tu dil beqaror kard.

Dasti bulurrangi tu qadri guhar shikast,

Labhoi chun aqiqi tu yoqut khor kard.

Az khoki pirahan chu namud on tani harir,

Olam pur az tarovati bui bahor kard.

Kalpushi zar, ki mast ba torak nihodaast,

Bo qomati chu durru guhar intishor kard.

Tu osmonu man chu zamin, chun kunam, valek,

Lutfi digar ba busaam ummedvor kard.

Gazali mazkur khele khub ast, vale dar har surat hunarmandona nest. Zero Ahmadi Donish navisandai zabardast, mutafakkir, faylasufu jomeashinos ast. Ashori u pesh, az hama, bo yagon sababe, bahonae va yo dar mavridhoi zaruri rui kor omadaast.

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