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AFZOISHI GAYRIJINSI

Dar mavridi afzoishi gayrijinsi organizmi nav az hisobi yak yo chand hujayrai gayrijinsii (somotiki)-i organizmi modari paydo meshavad.

Beshtar soddatarinho (amyoba, evglenai sabz va gayra) obsabzhoi yakhujayragi (khlamidomonad) bo rohi taqsimshavii mitozi afzoish mekunand. Mavjudoti yakhujayrai digar, masalan, baze zanburughoi darajai past, obsabzi khlorella, plazmodiya (barangezandai tablarza) bo spora afzoish meyoband. Dar asnoi chunin shakli afzoish hujayra, ki dar natijai paiham taqsim shudani yadroi modari paydo shudaast, boz ba chand qismi alohida judo meshavad (miqdori yadroho dar onho barobarand). Hamchunin organizmhoi serhujayra, ba monandi ushnaho, zanburughoi darajai oli, obsabzhoi serhujayra, sarakhsshaklon va gayraho qobilyati paydo kardani sporahoro dorand.

gairijinsi

Ham dar yakhujayragiho va ham dar organizmhoi serhujayra tarzi digari afzoishi gayrijinsi – mugjabandi niz dida meshavad, masalan, dar zamburughoi hamirturush (rasmi 6.1) va baze infuzoriyaho (infuzoriyai makanda). Tarzi mugjabandi chunin ast: dar hujayrahoi modari avval damidagii nachandon kalon paydo meshavad, ki yadro dorad va onro mugja menomand; mugja kalon shuda, barobari ba hajmi modar nazdik shudan az modar judo megardad va mustaqilona hayot meguzaronad.

Mugjabandii zanburugi khamirturush Dar mavjudoti serhujayra (gidroi obhoi shirin) mugcha az hujayrahoe, ki hardu devorai jismro ihota kardaand, paydo meshavad. On sabzida daroz meshavad va dar qismi pesh kovokii dahon paydo mekunad. Mugjabandi hamon vaqt ba okhir merasad, ki gidroi khurd tashakkul yobad va az organizmi modar judo shavad (rasmi 6.2).

Dar jonvaroni serhujayra, masalan, dar halqakirmho afzoishi gayrijinsi bo rohi du taqsim shudani badan, dar pahnkirmho va suzanpuston bo rohi qism-qism shudani badan (fragmentatsiya) ba amal meoyad. Az har yaki in qismho organizmi nav inkishof meyobad. Dar olami nabotot afzoishi nashvi, yane afzoish az hisobi qismi tana khele vase pahn gardidaast. Masalan, az qalamcha, muyak, lundak sabzidani rastaniho (rasmi 6.3).

Baroi afzoishi kartoshka qismi shakldigarkardai poyai zerizamini (lunda)-ro istifoda mebarand. YOsuman va bed az navda afzoish meyoband. Bo yorii qalamcha boshad, tok va qortro mesabzonand. Navdahoi daroz va khazandai shahtuti zamini, ki az muyakho iboratand, mugja paydo mekunand. Az onho dar vaqti shinondan rastanii nav ba vujud meoyad. YAk qismi kami rastaniho, masalan, guli begona (begoniya) ba vositai barg afzoish meyobad. Dar qismi poyoni barg, dar joi ragroni resha va dar boloi barg mugcha va navda paydo meshavad.

Baroi afzoishi nashvi, inchunin, resharo istifoda mebarand. Dar bogdori bo yorii qalamchahoi az pahlureshaho girifta baze rastanihoro mesabzonand, masalan, tamashk, olubolu, olu va gulhoi gunogun. Guli qashqari (georgina) az lundareshaho ziyod karda meshavad. Qismhoi shakldigarkardai zerizamini (az jumla, tanaresha) niz metavonand rastanihoi navro paydo kunand. Afzoishi nashvi dar baze hayvonot ham dida meshavad. CHunonchi, baze halqakirmhoi sermuyak bo rohi qism-qism judo shudani tana afzoish meyoband;

Asosi afzoishi nashviro qobiliyati tajdidi uzvho (regeniratsiya) niz tashkil medihad. Tajdid yo barqaror kardaniuzvi gumshuda khosi bisyor jonvaroni bemuhra va baze hayvonoti muhrador, obkhokiho meboshad. Afzoishi gayrijinsi, ki dar rafti tahavvulot (evolyutsiya) nisbat ba afzoishi jinsi peshtar ba vujud omadaast, ravandi khele bosamar meboshad.

Bo yorii on dar sharoiti musoid miqdori namudho khele ziyod meshavad. Albatta, dar hamai shakli afzoishi gayrijinsi genotipi nasl va modarashon yakkhelaand. Baroi durust fahmidani in ba mavzui mitoz nigared, chunki dar interfaza

aynan duchandshavii mavodi genetikai hujayra ba amal omada, dar natijai taqsimshavi har yak hujayrahoi dukhtari akhboroti irsii ba modar monandro megirad.

Az sababi on ki hamai hujayrahoi jismi (somotiki) dar natijai taqsimshavii mitozi ba vujud meoyand va az onho organizmhoi nav inkishof meyoband, binobar in fardhoi bo in roh afzoishyofta az jihati genetiki ba hamdigar monandand. Albatta, dar in jo afzudani gunogunshaklii genetiki rukh namedihad, vale dar nitijai digar shudani muhiti zist va mutatsiya baze alomathoi navi mufid paydo meshavad.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Dar kadom organizmho afzoishi gayrijinsi dida meshavad?
  2. Kadom shaklhoi afzoishi gayrijinsi ba shumo malumand?

Misol ored.

  1. CHaro dar naslhoi bo rohi afzoishi gayrijinsi paydoshuda bo yakdigar va fardhoi volidon monandand?

Istilohot:

  1. Afzoishi gayrijinsi – afzoishe, ki takrorshavii naslho az hisobi hujayrahoi badan (somotiki) ba amal meoyad.
  2. Afzoishi jinsi – tarzi ba khud monand paydo shudan, ki takrorshavii naslho az hisobi hujayrahoi makhsusgardida, yane hujayrahoi jinsi ba amal meoyad.
  1. Afzoishi nashvi – taqsimshavii mitozii yadro, ki sitotomiya ba on ovarda merasonad, ki sitoplazma dar bayni hujayrahoi dukhtari nobarobar taqsim meshavad.
  2. Mugchabandi – shakli afzoishi organizmho, ki az hisobi badani modari paydo meshavand.
  3. Sporahosilshavi – taqsimshavii bisyorkaratai hujayra ba porcha-porcha shudani sitoplazma, ki bo miqdori yadroho muvofiqand.
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