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AFYUN

1396332608_post-2-130AFYUN (yun. ópion – shirai khashkhosh), moddae, ki az shirai guzai khoshkhosh (kuknor) hosil mekunand. Malumoti nakhustin oid ba A. ba s-hoi 300 to m. rost meoyand. A.-ro dar YUnoni Qadim istifoda meburdand, khosiyathoi dardbarii on ba Buqrot malum bud. Minbad istifodai A. dar Hinduston, Hitoy rasm shud. Tarkibi A. taqr. az 20 khel alkaloid (morfin, narkotin, kodein, papaverin va g.) iborat ast. A. az qadimulayyom malumu mashhur meboshad. Dar ilmi tibbi tojik oid ba foida va zarari A. malumoti ziyod mavjudand. Zamonhoi pesh A.-ro baroi tabobati bemorihoi gunogun (sulfa, qulanj, bekhobi, ishol, bemorihoi daruni va g.) istifoda meburdand. A. chun taryok ham malum ast. Istemoli muntazami on boisi nashamandi megardad. Hudsarona koshtan, furukhtan va istemol namudani khashkhosh qonunan man ast.
Holo bo usulhoi sintezi yak qator doruho istehsol karda meshavand, ki tasirashon chun A. buda, vale odam ba onho odat namekunad. Hangomi az khashkhosh va hosilahoi on zahrolud shudan, nalorfin (antimorfin)-ro chun taryok yo podzahr istifoda mebarand.

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