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AFKANISHOTI IONZO

ionizing-radiation-400x200AFKANISHOTI IONZO (Radiatio ionisans) afkanishote, ki dar natijai tasiri mutaqobilai on bo muhit zaryadhoi elektrii gunogun hosil meshavand. Hangomi tasiri mutaqobilai A. i. bo yagon modda atomhoi elektrii neytral ba atomhoi zaryadnok (ionho) tabdil meyoband, zero A. i. ba kohish yo bo elektronho payvast shudani atomho yori merasonad. Dar asnoi az mador nest shudani elektron atom ba ioni musbat va hangomi payvast gashtani elektron ba ioni manfi tabdil meyobad. A. i. badi dar s.1895 afkanishoti rentgeniro kashf kardani fiziki nemis V.K. Rentgen va s. 1896 hodisai radioaktiviro kashf kardani olimi fransavi A. Bekkerel malum gardid. A. i. kvanti (elektromagniti; ba on gamma-afkanishot va afkanishoti rentgeni mansuband) va korpuskulyari (az zarrachahoi yadroii gunogun, yane alfa – zarrachaho, beta – zarrachaho, neytronho, protonho va g. iboratand) meshavad.
Dar sharoiti tabii A. i. dar natijai jarayoni fiziki dar sitoraho ba vujud omada az fazoi koinot ba Zamin vorid meshavad va ba hayvonotu nabotot tasiri doimi merasonad. Atmosferai Zamin qismi ziyodi in afkanishotro furu burda, bo hamin roh sokinonro az tasiri zararnoki on muhofizat mekunad. Izotophoi radioaktivii tabii va suni niz manbai A. i. shuda metavonand. Imkoniyati hosil kardani izotophoi sunii radioaktivi bad az kashfi hodisai radioaktiviyati suni (1934; F. Jolio – Kyuri va I. Jolio Kyuri) imkonpazir gasht. Hosiyathoi biologii A. i. imkon medihand, ki on dar tib niz baroi tashkhisi bemoriho (tadqiqi rentgenologi, tashkhisi radioizotopi), muolijai omos, gazak va illathoi digar (shuoshifoi) istifoda shavad.
A. i. tasiri nomatlubi biologi ham merasonad. CHunin khosiyati on hanuz dar solhoi avvali kashf, khususan bad az tarkishi bombahoi atomi dar sh-hoi Hirosima va Nagasaki YAponiya malum shud.
Az jonibi mutakhassison – radiologho muttasil omukhtani tasiri biologii A. i. imkon medihad, ki usulhoi samarabakhsh va dar ayni zamon bekhatari tashkhis va muolijai odamon daryoft shavand. Hangomi shuoshifoi intikhobi manbai afkanishot ahamiyati kalon dorad, chunki namudhoi gunoguni A. i. vobasta ba khosiyathoi fizikiashon dar chuqurii gunogun voridi boftaho meshavand. Mas., afkanishoti rentgenii sustenergiya va alfa – zarrachaho ba pust hamagi to chuqurii chand millimetr vorid meshavand, binobar in onhoro baroi tabobati amrozi rui pust istifoda mebarand. Afkanishoti elektroni, protoni va rentgenii purzurro baroi bo yorii shuo nest kardani manbai bemorihoi daruni kor mefarmoyand. Baroi peshgirii tasiri nomatlubi A. i. tadbirhoe tahiya shudaand, ki hayati kormandonro az shuozanii ziyodati emin medorand.
SHuokhurii bemoron hangomi tadqiqu tashkhisi rentgenologi va radiatsioni az haddi voyai shuozani ziyod nest va yagon oqibati ziyonovar nadorad.
Dar mavridi shuoshifoi asbobhoi tekhniki organizmi odamro az tasiri nomatlubi A. i. muhofizat karda, tamomi energiyaro ba uzvi illatnok ravona mesozand. Kormandone, ki bo A. i. sarukor dorand, bo asbobhoi makhsusi muhofizati tamin karda shuda, az imtiyozhoi muayyan (ruzi kori kutoh, maoshi ilovagi, rukhsatii bardavom) barkhurdorand. Saviyai donishi nazariyavi va amalii kormandon oid ba tekhnikai bekhatari muntazam sanjida meshavad va onho hamesha tahti nazorati tibbi qaror dorand.

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