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ADSORBSIYA

adsorbsiyaADSORBSIYA (az lot. ad – ba, nazdi va sorbeo – mejabbam), dar sathi moddai sakht yo moe (adsorbent) jabbida shudani gaz yo mahlul (adsorbat). Mac., agar ba mahluli obii kislotai sirko yak porcha angisht andokhta shavad, molekulahoi kislotai sirko dar sathi angisht A. shuda, miqdori kislota dar mahlul mekohad. A. az khosiyati molekulahoi dar qabati sathi joydoshtai modda vobasta ast. Dar molekulahoi qabati sathi energiyai ziyodi ozod mavjud ast, ki hamesha mayl ba kohish dorad. Hangomi doimi budani hududi sathi khud ba khud kam shudani energiyai ozod dar natijai kostani kashishi sathi ba amal meoyad. Dar natija dar qabati sathi modda az muhiti berun furu burda meshavad. Bazan A. faqat bo qabati boloi mahdud nashuda, to ba qabathoi dokhilii adsorbent pahn me- gardad. CHunin ravandro absorbsiya menomand. A. fizikavi, khimiyavi va intikhobi meshavad. A.-i fizikavi khud ba khud az hisobi tasiri hamdigarii quvvahoi susti Van-der-Vaalsi ba amal meoyad. Dar vaqti baland shudani harorat A.-i fizikavi kohish meyobad, mas., A.-i ba- ze gazho. A.-i khimiyavi (khemosorbsiya) bo rohi tasiri khimiyavi ba amal meoyad. Baland shudani harorat A.-i khimiyaviro metezonad. A.-i intikhobi bartari doshtani A.-i yak modda nazar ba A.-i moddai digar ast. Buzurgii A. ba harorat, sath va tabiati fizikaviyu khimiyavii adsorbent, konsentratsiyai modda va g. vobasta meboshad. Dar adsorbenthoi sakht A. shudani ionho ahamiyati kalon dorad, chunki ravandi ba hujayraho vorid shudani moddahoi minerali va gizo ba hamin asos yoftaast. A.-ro baroi judo kardani moddahoi faoli biologii kholis – fermentho, vitaminho, hamchun podzahr hangomi muolijai bemorihoi rohi medayu rudaho istifoda mekunand. Adsorbentho bo maq- sadi toza kardani havo ba protivogaz andokhta meshavand, hangomi tahlili khimiyavi va istehsoli doruho ba kor meravand.

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