Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / ADYONI MILLI (Paydoishi Din) – Religiya

ADYONI MILLI (Paydoishi Din) – Religiya

Dar zamoni guzashta va hozira bisyor dinho budand va hastand, ki etiqodmandoni onro yagon guruhi etniki tashkil medihand. Hususiyati etniki-milli dar hamai dinho mavjud ast va dar zaboni muqaddasi kitobhoi dini, farhangi etnikiyu millie, ki dar din inikos yoftaast, muhitu mintaqai bayonshuda va gayra zohir megardad.

Dinhoi milli gufta, odatan, dinhoero meguyand, ki doirai pahnshavii onho bo khalqu millati muayyan mahdud meshavad. Az jumla dinhoi muosiri milli: hindiya, sikkiya, sintoiya, dini Konfusiy, daoparasti, yahudiya va gayra meboshand. Baze dinhoi milli az bayn raftaand va yo dar doirai khalqi vorisi on din mavqei khudro az dast dodaand.

din-023Masalan, zardushtiya, moniya, mazdakiya, jayniya va gayra. Dinhoi milli dar sharoiti muayyani tarikhiyu ijtimoi paydo shudaand.

Aksari onho dar davrai tashakkuli khalqiyatho va yo ibtidoi paydoishi davlatdorii onho ba vujud omadaand. Dinho ravandi muttahid shudani millatro ba tavri khud inikos mekunand.

Marosimhoi dinhoi muosiri milli khele murakkab buda, qabuli onhoro baroi khalqu millathoi digar mushkil megardonad. Talimotu hidoyat ba yagon qavmu millat nigaronida shudaast, na ba tamomi khalqho. Az in jo ham talimot, ham marosimho doirai pahnshavii onhoro mahdud mesozad.

Masalan, dini yahudiya tanho yahudiyonro mumin va az tarafi khudoi YAhva khalqi intikhobshuda medonand, yo konfusiyagaroi talimoti akhloqi-ijtimoii khosi Hitoy dorad, ki ba mardumi digar fahmo va qobili qabul nest, az jumla parastishi imperatori Hitoy va gayra. YAne onho khususiyati baynalmillali va targiboti nadorand.

Dinhoi milli mutobiqi malumoti tarikhshinoson tarikhan pesh az dinkhoi chakhoni ba vuchud omadaand. Bo qavli onho muddate taqriban dar tamomi jahon dinhoi milli hukmroni mekardand.

Dinhoi milli zaminai shakli muayyani guzarish ba dinhoi jahoni shudaand va tasiri khudro dar dinhoi jahoni boqi guzoshtand. Az jumlai dinhoi qadimai milli dinhoi Misri Qadim va YUnoni Qadim meboshand. Dini qadimai Misr bisyorkhudoi /politeisti/ buda, dar davrahoi khele qadim dar bayni mardume, ki dar sohilhoi Nil zindagi mekardand, paydo shuda, minbad dar davrai hukmronii firavnho khele inkishof yofta va nufuzi ziyode kasb kard. Mabudi asosii Misri qadim tabiat meboshad, ki ba kasbu kori dehkononi misri tasiri bagoyat buzurg dosht.

Nil, ki obi on vositai asosii kishovarzi bud, dar obrazi Hudoi Hapi, oftob dar simoi khudo Ra tajassum yofta budand. Gayr az in oliha Sakhmet va khudoi Anubis, ki dar surati hayvonho tasavvur meshudand, mavridi parastish qaror doshtand. Hudohoi ziyodi digar ham vujud doshtand, ki khosi in yo on mahal budand, az jumla Amon, Aton va gayra.

Dar bayni khudohoi misriyon khudohoi kishovarzi Osiris va Isida mavqei muhim ishgol menamudand. Dar YUnoni Qadim ham sistemai politeisti hukmfarmo bud. Hudohoi YUnoni Qadim dar simoi inson tasvir meshudand/antropomorfizm/. Vobasta ba har khudo rivoyati makhsuse vujud dosht, ki dar majmu onho mifologiyai YUnoni Qadimro tashkil dodaand.

Dar khudohoi YUnoni Qadim tabiat va hodisahoi mushakhkhasi on tajassum shudaand. Masalan, khudoi radu barq – Zevs, olihai shahrsozi va obodoni – Afina, khudoi hosil va kishovarzi -Dinis va gayra. Dar tasavvuroti dinii yunoniho khususiyatkhoi tabiii in kishvar, odatu marosimhoi yunoniyon, khislathoi psikhologi, ijtimoi, siyosi va farhangii hayoti onho inikos shudaand. Makoni khudohoi qadim YUnoni Qadim Olimp bud. Az in jo khudohoi YUnoni Qadimro khudohoi Olimp niz meguyand.

Bo tasiri sokhti ijtimoi, hayoti manaviyu ijtimoi dinhoi mazkur az bayn raftand. Masalan, bo kohish yoftani jamiyati yunoniho, sokhti polisi va demokrati dini qadimai yunoniyon tasiri khudro gumm kard, vale dar dini nasroni, ki dini imperiyai Rim gardid, tasiri muayane guzosht.

 

YAhudiyat dini avvalini tavhidii Milli meboshad, ki yahudiyon ba on etiqod doshtand. Nomi Hudo dar dini onho YAhva ast. Hanuz dar asri XIII to melod etiqod ba YAhva dar bayni yahudiyon vujud dosht.

Badi zavoli Falastin va paydoishi avvalin davlati YAhudiya /asri X to melod/ parastishi YAhva dar in davlat jori gardid. Ruhoniyoni yahudiyai Baytulmuqaddas /Ierusalim/ Tavrot /qonun/ kitobi muqaddasi yahudiyonro dar bayni mardum pahn kardaand. Kitobi muqaddasi mazkur Asfori Panjgona (Panjkitob) niz nom dorad. Muvofiqi rivoyat Panjkitob ba Muso – paygambar az tarafi khudo vahy shudaast va onro hangomi muloqot ba khudo daryoft kardaast. Panjkitob ba gayr az davatho ba sui khudo va parastishi u, inchunin majmui qoida va hukmhoero dar bar megirad, ki tibqi onho yahudiyon amal namuda, zindagii shakhsi va ijtimoii khudro tanzim medihand. Baze qoidaho bo qonuni Hamurapi /HVIII to melod/ shohi Bobuliston va zindagii finikiho monandi dorad.

Badtar ba Tavrot boz chand asari digar ilova shud, ki dar majmu katibai muqaddasi yahudiyon – Tanah, yo Ahdi Qadimro tashkil dodand. Ba on 39 kitobi doroi mazmunhoi gunogun dokhil meshavand.

Dar ibtidoi solshumorii melodi davlati yahudiyon az tarafi rimiho ishgol gardid va ibodatgohi Baytulmuqaddas kharob shud. YAhudiyon az markazi dinii khud va ibodatgoh mahrum gardidand. Bisyore az yahudiyon dar sarzamini davlathoi digar, qabl az hama berun az khoki Falastin muqimi gashtand. Avvalin pareshonshavii yahudiyon ba amal omad. YAhudiyoni diaspora /parokanda shuda/ dar jamiyathoi dinii sinagogho /sinagogo – az yunoni -majlis/ muttahid shudaand. Sinagogho na tanho markazi dini, balki markazi mamuri niz budand. Ba onho ravvinho rohbari menamudand /ravvin az yahudii qadim “rabbi” ba manii “muallimi man” ast. Dar faoliyati khud ravvinho na faqat Tanah, balki Talmudro niz istifoda mekardand. Talmud az kalimai yahudii qadim “lamed” – omuzish ast, ki az Mishna va Gemara iborat ast.

Har dui in qismat dar natijai tasiri Gera dar diasporaho ba vujud omadaand. Semara bad az Mishna paydo shud, in taqriban dar asrhoi III melodi surat giriftaast.

Az etiqodoti yahudiyon, ki dar kitobhoi muqaddasi onho zikr yoftaast, etiqod ba khudoi yagona YAhva – kholiqi olamu odam, ruzi jazoyu sazo – qiyomat, khalosii yahudiyon va saodatmandii onho dar on dunyoro metavon nombar kard. YAke az ruknkhoi yahudi on etiqod ba Maseho ast. Maseho az yahudii qadim “mashiah” – “mash karda shuda” ast. Maseho firistodai khudo meboshad va ononro, ki ba khudoi yagona YAhva etiqodmandand, boyad az azobi jahannam va dunyo khalosi bakhshad. Dar talimoti yahudiya duzakhu bihisht, qiyomat mukofoti amal mutobiqi ijroi talaboti yahudiya, ehyoi murdagon va az bayni hamai mardum az tarafi khudo intikhob shudani yahudiyon mavqei muhim ishgol mekunand.

YAhudiyat rasmu odatkhoi ziyod va murakkab dorad, ki hayoti dindoronro az ibtido to intiho ba tanzim medarorad, az jumla 365 tahrim va 248 hukm. Az rui onho yahudi medonad, ki kadom taomro khurad va kadomashro nakhurad, chi libos pushad, ruzro az chi ogoz kunad va bo chi anjom dihad. Az jumla baroi yahudi khurdani gushti khuk, khargush, asp harom ast. yakbora khuroki gushti va shiri naboyad khurad.

Idhoi yahudiyon niz bo tartibi khos meguzarad. Muhimtarin idhoi onho rosh-hashona – soli nav, iom-kipur – ruzi jazo (gufron) va fasha meboshand. Baroyashon khatna va ehtiromi ruzi shanbe hatmi ast.

Az soli 1948, badi tashkil shudani davlati Isroil yahudiyat dini davlati va sinagoga omili muhimi hayoti davlati va ijtimoi gardidaast. Talimoti yahudiyat dar borai afza linti khalqi yahud chun mardumi az tarafi khudo intikhobshuda dar ideologiyai sahyuniya istisifoda meshavad.

In ideologiyai millatgaroi tartib menamoyad, ki yahudiyon boyad dar nazdi kuhi

Sahdon (Sion), ki dar on jo yak vaqte ibodatkhonai Baytulmuqaddas bino yofta budaast, jam shavand. Ideologiyai mazkur najodparasi, bartarii yahudiyonro bar digaron targib menamoyad.

YAhudiyat dar tuli mavjudiyati khud betagyir nabud. Muhaqqiqon raviyahoi ijtichoi va modernistiro dar on farq mekunand. Raviyai modernisti kushish menamoyand, ki talimoti yahudiyatro ba zamona muvofiq, sozad. Dar Tojikiston payravoni yahudiyat ziyod nestand, vale sinagogi khudro dorand. Onho chun dinhoi digar ozodona amal namuda, hamai imkonotro baroi ijroi marosimhoi dinii khud doro meboshand, tarafdori hamzistii osoishta, hamkori bo namoyandagoni digar dinho meboshand, kori khayriya nisbati mardumi kambizoatu yatimon anjom medihand.

Suporish va savolho.

1.CHaro dinhoi milli ba vujud omadand?

2. Sababi paydoishi dinhoi bisyorkhudoi dar chist?

3. Oid ba dini YAhudiya chi malumote dored?

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

mazhab

RAVIYA VA FIRQAHO DAR ISLOM

Bad az pahnshavii islom dar kishvarhoi digar va barkhurdi on bo tamaddunhoi mukhtalif, tagyiroti muayayne …