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ADABIYOT dar asrhoi XIX-XX

Adabiyot. Rafti taraqqiyoti iqtisodii mamlakathoi sarmoyadori, siyosati istilogaronai mamlakathoi imperialisti, norozigii ahli taraqqikhohi-jamoatchigii demokratii jahon az in siyosat ba mazmunu mundarija va samthoi inkishofi adabiyot tasir rasondand. Zarurat ba miyon omad, ki dar sharoiti digar ba hayot ba tarzi nav nigarista, onro voqebinonatar inikos namoyand. Adibon rohhoi dar asarhoi khud durust inikos kardani hayotro justuju mekardand.

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Adabiyoti realizmi tanqidi, ki dar asri XIX ba muvaffaqiyati kalon noil gardida bud, dar okhirhoi in asr va avvali asri XX boz ham gustarish yoft. Dar adabiyot va sanat jarayonhoi nav ba maydon omadand. Onho illathoi jomearo ba zeri tanqidi sakht girifta, rohhoi khalosiro az badbakhtii ba sari mardum omada nishon dodani meshudand.

Naturalizm. In jarayon avval dar Faronsa ba vujud omadaast va on manoi “tabiat”-ro dorad. Naturalizm dar nazar dosht, ki navisanda va sanatkor boyad voqeahoro bo diqqati tom omukhta, dar onho qonuniyathoi amiqro muayyan kunand, chi tavre ki qonunho dar fizika, khimiya, tabiatshinosi va ilmhoi digar vujud dorand. Naturalistchiyon davo doshtand, ki naturalizm yagona farhangi az jihati ilmi asosnok ast. Vay ba adabiyotu sanat khususiyathoi hujjati medihad, yane surati voqearo daqiqan muayyan mesozad. Dar asarhoi naturalisti obraz, bahodihi va mushohidahoi shakhsii muallif to darajae az nazar berun memondand. Az sababi on ki naturalistchiyon ba asarhoi khud az had ziyod mohiyati biologi, fiziologi, khimiyavi, fiziki medodand, qimati badeii onho baland nabud.

Simvolizm. In jarayon dar Faronsa javoban ba jarayoni naturalizm ba miyon omadaast. Dar on joe, ki naturalizm ojizi mekard, ba joi on simvolizm ba maydon mebaromad. Bar khilofi naturalizm simvolizm davat mekard, ki voqeiyat ba hisob girifta nashavad. Realistho meguftand, ki voqeiyat hamatarafa va ejodkorona inikos karda shavad, lekin simvolchiyon bovarii komil doshtand, ki az “marzhoi voqeiyat” dur raftan lozim ast. Muhiti zindagi, ba aqidai onho, nochiz buda, shoyoni tavajjuhi ziyod nest.

Harchand simvolizm ba muvaffaqiyati kalon noil nashud, vale on tavonist, ki dar adabiyot va khususan dar nazm martabai sukhanro baland bardorad. Aksariyati simvolchiyon besamar budani justujuhoi ejodii khudro dark karda, ohista-ohista ba realizm guzashtand.

Futurizm. Futurizm az kalimai lotinii “futurus” – “oyanda” girifta shudaast. In jarayoni adabi nisbat ba jarayonhoi digari on dertar ba vujud omadaast. Mohiyati in jarayon rad kardani sanat meboshad. Az nazari futurchiyon sanat hamchun shakli makhsusi shuuri jamiyati boyad tamoman nest shuda, ba yak qismi istehsolot, ruzgor va siyosat tabdil doda shavad. Hizmate, ki in jarayon kardaast, az on iborat ast, ki ba sanat khususiyati “industriali” dod. On baroi zebo sokhtani tekhnikai hozirazamon va binokori kumak rasonidaast.

Dekadenti. Nomi in jarayon az kalimai faronsavii “dekadens” – “tanazzul” paydo shudaast. Dekadenti tasiri bevositai goyahoi ifroti ba shuuri adibon va sanatkoron bud. Dar in davrai murakkab onho dar faoliyati ejodii khud mekalavidand. Az hamin sabab dekadentchiyon mavqei khudro dar adabiyot va sanat ba tavri boyadu shoyad nayoftand. Adibon va sanatkoroni in raviya bo quvvai odam va peshravii minbadai jomea ba tavri umedbakhsh bovari nadoshtand.

Ideologiyai imperializm. Ideologhoi imperializm az goyahoi “ozodi, barobari va barodari”, ki yak vaqtho burjuaziyai ozodikhoh elon karda bud, dast kashidand. Tarikhshinosoni ifroti goyahoi peshqadami inqilobhoi burjuaziro tahrif karda, onhoro khato va arboboni namoyoni onro shuhratparastu khoin menomidand. Faylasufonu iqtisodchiyon va olimoni digar baroi “isbot” kardani qonuni budani sokhti mavjuda az khud har guna nazariyahoro bofta mebarovardand va siyosati istilogaronai khorijni mamlakathoi imperialistiro haq mebarovardand.

Faylasufi nemis Fridrikh Nitsshe (1841-1900) yake az mashhurtarin ideologhoi imperalizm bud. U takid mekard, ki odamon ba “janobon” va “gulomon” taqsim shudaand. “Janobon shakhsoni tavono” va “favqulinson” buda, baroi onho “hama kor ravo ast”. “Janobon” haqqu huquq dorand, ki qonunhoi akhloqro tamoman ba inobat nagirand va har kasero, ki peshi rohashonro megirad, baroi nafi khud nestu nobud gardonand.

In ideologiya ’‘jangro manii olii hayot” nomidaast. Behuda nest, ki badtar fashizm onro istifoda burd.

Baroi haq barovardani siyosati istilogaronai khud nazariyotchiyoni imperializm az talimoti olimoni digar, masalan, az CHarlz Darvin-ham istifoda meburdand. Onho qonunhoi olami hayvonotro nisbat ba jomeai insoni tatbiq karda, isbot mekardand, ki muboriza baroi hayot jomearo ba pesh harakat medihad. Odamons, ki az gurusnagi memirand, sababi tanbalii onhost. In nazariyotchiyonro dar tarikh “sotsial-darvinchiyon” nomidaand. Sotsial-darvinchiyon behayoyona meguftand, ki margi chunin odamon baroi khushbakhtii digaron zarur ast.

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