Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / ADABIYOTI TOJIK – Kitobi darsi baroi sinfi 10

ADABIYOTI TOJIK – Kitobi darsi baroi sinfi 10

MUQADDIMA

Adabiyot va mavzui bahsi on: Adabiyot lafzi arabi buda, reshai on adab ast, ki ba manoi donish, marifat, guftoru kirdori nek va khirad dalolat mekunad. Adabiyot dar mafhumi vasei on majmui osori khattiyu shifohii qavme, khalqe, millate buda, dar fahmishi mahdudi on inikosi badeii hayot ast va in tarzi tasviri zindagi ba vositai obrazho ba tasvir ovardani hayot meboshad. YAne adabiyot dar fahmishi istilohii on yak navi sanat buda, ba vositai obrazho tasvir namudani hayot, dunyo ast yo in ki adabiyot inikosi obraznoki hayot buda, dar on hardu pahlui zindagi-tarafhoi musbat va pahluhoi manfi ba vositai obrazho, timsolho, namunaho tasvir karda meshavad. Ba in vosita zuhuri manfii jomea mahkum karda shuda, pahluhoi musbati on tarhibu tashviq megardad.

rudakiAz in ru, adabiyot hamchun navi sanat baroi rushdu numui jamiyat tasiri nihoyat qavi dorad va digargunsozihoi hayoti jamiyati ba on vobasta ast. Umuman, adabiyot inikosi voqeiyat ba vositai obrazest, ki tavassuti kalomi manzum (nazm) va mansur (nasr) amali megardad.

Adabiyot kitobi darsii hayot ast. Ejodkori adabiyotro adib menomand va adibe, ki bo kalomi manzum-sher saru kor dorad, ejod mekunad, shoir va adibe, ki osori nasri meofarad, navisanda nomida meshavad.

Hadaf az lafzi adabiyot, pesh az hama, adabiyoti badei buda, onro dar guzashta kalomi bade guftaand. Kalomi bade- sukhani nav, ajoib, nodir buda, dar mantiqi oddii ifoda sukhani obraznok, tasviri obraznok ast. Az in ru, adabiyoti badei ba inson saru kor dorad, ruzgoru faoliyati insonro meomuzad. Ba ehsosotu tafakkuri inson tasir merasonad. Jahonbini, donishu khirad, marifatu tafakkuri uro takmil medihad va az in jost, ki adibro muhandisi ruhii inson niz meguyand.

Kalimai adabiyot mahsuli miyonahoi asri XIX buda, tarikhi zuhuri adabiyot hamchun sanati sukhan khele qadima ast. Az in ru, dar asrhoi miyona iborahoi ulumi adabi, ulumi adabiya, fununi adabiya mavridi istifoda qaror giriftaand, ki az 12 to 22 juzi fununi adabiro faro megirad. Az jumla: ilmi luhat, ilmi nahv, ilmi sarf, ilmi bayon, ilmi aurz, ilmi qofiya, ilmi khat, ilmi insho, ilmi maoni va gayra ba shumor meraftaast.

Dar markazi adabiyoti badei simoi inson, shakhs meistad. YAne mavzui bahsi adabiyoti badei hamono inson va jamiyat, odamon va voqeiyatu muhiti ihotakunandai onhost. Kamoloti manavii inson hadafi adabiyoti badeist.

Adabiyot fanni insonshinosi, sanati sukhan va vositai tarbiyayu takmili kamoloti manavii bashariyat ast. Adabiyot tarikhi khalq, andozai jahonbini, tafakkuri badei, khazinai zehni, tavonoii aqloni va bardoshthoi mafkuravii insoniyat ast va az sababi on ki fanni millist, pas burdu bokhti hamon millatu khalqiyat niz hast.

Adabiyot dar zaminai ejodiyoti shifohii khalq dar zamonhoi khele qadim paydo shudaast va az rui ittilooti olimon tarikhi adabiyoti tojik 8 hazor sol qabl zuhur kardaast. Dar adabiyoti shifohi boshad, unsurhoi sukhanoni obraznokro dar asotir justaand va mintaqahoi madani yo gahvorai tamaddunro dar Eron, Misru CHin, Hindustonu Rim donistaand. Dar Misri Qadim ahdi Romsisi II osori manzum takhmin karda meshavad, ki ohozi sadai H1Uto milod ejod shudaast. YO khud «Illiada» va «Odisseya»-i Homeri YUnoni ohozi asri IX to milod va «Vedo»-i hinduho dar asri XII to milod manzum shudaand. «Avasto» (guyo avvalin sherro Boboi Odam guftaast) va khususan, gotho qadimtarin bakhshi on ba shumor meravad, ki az zuhuri adabiyot va farhangu hunar guvohi medihad. Vale, chunon ki ishora namudem, tarikhi ejodiyoti shifohi (folklor) boz ham muqaddamtar ast, zero ejodiyoti shifohii khalq to zuhuri khat va alifbo paydo shudavu ibtido yo khud ogozi paydoishi adabiyoti kasbi ba shumor meravad.

Dar asrhoi miyona boshad mo hanuz dar ogozi paydoishi feodalizm tashakkuli adabiyotro mushohida mekunem, ki ibtidoi on ba ejodiyoti Rudaki va muosironi vay rost meoyad, ki ba qavle dar in asr nazdik ba 250 tan quvvahoi adabi zindagi va ejod kardaand.

Davrai navi inkishofi adabiyoti asrhoi miyona ba zamoni ehyoi madani rost omadaast. Hususan jarayoni maorifparvari (nimai II asri XIX) miyoni neruhoi adabi tabadduloti mafkuraviro tavlid namud va takoni ijtimoie zuhur kard, ki baroi peshrafti jamiyat zaminai khele musoid faroham ovard.

Tarzu usuli tasvir dar adabiyot mohiyati balandi zeboiparasti dorad, zero nafosatro hama dust medorad va az in ru, adabiyot tamoili purra ba nafosat dorad. Masalan, juziyoti tabiat: sang, zamin, kuh, darakht, daryo, giyoh, boron, abr, bod, osmon va Hayra mavzui bahsi ilmhoi digar niz hast. Adabiyot hangomi ba tasvir giriftani onho, pesh az hama, ba onho zeboi mebakhshad, chunonchi tasviri bahor dar yak bahoriyai ustod Rudaki:

Omad bahori khurram bo rangu bui tib,

Bo sad hazor nuzhatu oroishi ajib.

SHoyad, ki mardi pir bad-in gah shavad javon,

Geti ba dil yoft shabob az payi mashib[1].

CHarkhi buzurgvor yake lashkare bikard,

Lashkar-sh abri tiravu bodi sabo naqib[2].

Naffot[3] barqi ravshanu tundar-sh tablzan,

Didam hazor khaylu nadidam chunin muhib[4].

On abr bin, ki giryad chun mardi sugvor

V-on rad bin, ki nolad chun oshiqi kaib[5].

Hurshedro zi abr damad ruy goh-goh,

CHun on hisorie, ki guzar dorad az raqib.

YAkchand ruzgor jahon dardmand bud,

Beh shud, ki yoft bui sumanbodro tabib.

Boroni mushkbuy biborid nav ba nav

V-az abr barkashid yake hullai qasib[6].

Kunje, ki barf pesh hamedosht gul girift,

juyake, ki khushk hamebud, shud ratib[7].

Tundar miyoni dasht hame bod bardamad,

Barq az miyoni abr hame barkashad qazib[8].

Lola miyoni kisht bikhandad hame zi dur,

CHun panjai arus ba hino shuda khazib[9].

Bulbul hame bikhonad dar shokhsori bed,

Sor az darakhti sarv mar uro shuda mujib[10].

Sulsul ba sarvbun-bar bo naHmai kuhan,

Bulbul ba shokhi gul-bar bo lahnaki Harib.

Aknun khured bodavu aknun zied shod,

K-aknun barad nasib habib az bari habib.

Soqi guzin bodavu may khur ba bongi Zer[11],

K-az kisht sor noladu az boH andaleb.

Harchand navbahor jahon as(t) ba chashm khub,

Didori khoja khubtar-on mehtari hasib[12].

SHebi tu bo farozu farozi tu bo nisheb,

Farzandi odami ba tu andar ba shebu teb[13].

Didi tu reju[14] kom bad-u andarun base,

Bo ridakoni[15] mutrib budi ba farru zeb.

Dar in bahoriya hama chiz zebost va adabiyot, pesh az hama, ba onho chunin nafosatro ehdo namudaast. Bahor besh az sad hazor vostitahoi zebu zinat hamroh dorad va avvalindarajai on muhassanot rangu bui ajoib ast. In ast, ki bahor mardi pirro shoyad javon gardonad, vale tabiati sarmozadaro allakay bedor namuda javoniyu jamol bakhshidaast. Zero boron-mushkbuy, abr-hullavash, rui zamin (dashtu daman)-gulpush, kishtzoronro lola misli panjahoi hinobastai aruson namudavu parrandagon naHmasaroiho dorand. Maqsadi shoir khushguzaronii umri aziz, ru ovardan ba shodiyu nishot va bahrabardori az hayot ast.

  1. Adabiyot na tanho tabiat va ajzoi onro husnu tarovat, nafosatu zeboi mebakhshad, besh az on adabiyot ba inson az nigohi zohiru botin, shaklu namud va nihodu sirat niz neru medihad. Bashariyat hangomi ba zabon giriftan yo khondani nomhoi Rustam-tahamtani muqtadir,

khalqparvar, vatandust, ozodikhoh, adolatjuro tasavvur mekunad. YO ki barobari ba yod ovardani Layli, SHirin, Majnun, YUsuf iffatu ismat, pokivu safo ba khotir merasad. Baraks, hangomi shunidani Zahhok, SHiruya, Husrav, Afrosiyob, Kaykovus simoi manfuri khudpisandi, takabbur, pasttinati, kutohnazari, bekhiradi, gumrohi, khudkhohi, khiyonatu bevafoi, ziyonu badkirdori, zolimiyu qotili va Hayra ba yodi kas meoyad, ki on az tasiri quvvai sukhan, nerui kalom- adabiyot ast.

Albatta dar in miyon simohoi mashhur misli Rustam, Suhrob, Siyovush niz Halatho kardaand, vale insoniyat az Halathoi onho niz sabaqi hayoti megirad. Az in ru, hatto obrazhoi manfi niz ba insonho tasiri musbat merasonand, zero odamon az kirdori zishti onho niz tajriba hosil namuda, dar hayot az khislathoi razila hazar mekunand, duri mejuyand, to ki ba raftoru kirdori zisht ru ba ru nashavand. Az in ru, ejodkoroni adabiyotro vobasta ba donishu mahorat, istedodu hunar, jahonbiniyu poyai ejodiashon bashariyat qadrshinosi menamoyad. In ast, ki dar tarikhi ejodi bade unvonhoi iftikhorii «malikushshuaro», «amirushshuaro», «nadimushshuaro», «odamushshuaro», «khalloqulmaoni», «afsahulmu-takallimin», «abulakhloq», «abulmaoni», «lisonulHayb», «malikulkalom», «sultonulfuzalo» va Hayra ba miyon omadand va sukhanvaron vobasta ba poyai ejodiashon sazovor donista shudaand. Masalan, Rudaki «odamushshuaro», Kamoli Ismoil (okhiri asri XII) «khalloqulmaoni», Sadi «abulakhloq», Hofiz «lisonulhayb», Bedil «abulmaoni» donista shudaand.

Adabiyoti badei, ki ba inson saru kor dorad va maqsadi asosii on tarhibi khislathoi hamidai inson va mahkum namudani amoli razila buda, baroi ba maqsad rasidani odamon dar jomea kumak merasonad. Adabiyoti badei ba inson baroi rasidan ba maqsad yori menamoyad va odamonro ba hayot, ba zindagi dilgarm, sherdil, bohayrat va uhdabaro megardonad. Barobari peshraviyu inkishofi inson, muhitu jamiyat, adabiyoti badei niz dar zaminai qonunhoi muayyan inkishof meyobad, pesh meravad va qonuniyathoi ba khud khosu judogona dorad. Ilme, ki qonuniyathoi paydoishu tashakkul, rushdu tahvvuloti adabiyoti badeiro meomuzad, adabiyotshinosi nom dorad, ki on dar navbati khud, doroi se qism ast: tarikhi _ada_biyot, _nazariyai _adabi, _naqdi _adabi meboshand. Tarikhi adabiyot-paydoish, tashakkul va rushdu tahavvuli adabiyotro meomuzad.

Qonuniyathoi zuhuru tashakkul va inkishofi anvoi adabi, prinsiphoi ejod va bardoshthoi janriyu jinsii adabiyotro qismati nazariyai adabiyot tadqiq mekunad. Oid ba hunari ejodivu husnu qubhi talif naqdi adabi saru kor dorad. Bakhshhoi mazkuri adabiyotshinosiro be yakdigar nametavon mukammal donist, zero onho dar hambastagii yakdigar inkishof meyoband.

Bakhshhoi mazkur qismathoi asosii adabiyotshinosi buda, onho inchunin bakhshhoi yorirasoni digar niz dorand, ki baroi inkishofu peshrafti ilmi adabiyotshinosi musoidat menamoyand. Masalan, ba qismathoi yovari adabiyotshinosi: matnshinosi, sabkshinosi, sarchashmashinosi, kitobshinosi va gayra dokhil meshavand. Dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik hatto dovarihoi shoirona tarikhi naqdi adabi yo tanqidro mukammal sokhtaast. SHoironi fors-tojik: Rudaki, Firdavsi, Unsuri, Farrukhi, Manuchehri, Nosiri Husrav, Sanoi, Attor, Hoqoni, Nizomi, Zahiri Foryobi, Anvari, Husravi Dehlavi, Hasani Dehlavi, Sadi, Salmoni Sovaji, Hojui Kirmoni, Jaloluddini Balkhi, Ubaydi Zokoni, Hofizi SHerozi, Kamoli Hujandi, Jomi, Hiloli, Mushfiqi, Kalimi Koshoni, Soibi Tabrezi, Nozimi Hiroti, Sayido, Bedil, Vozeh, SHohin va digaron, ki shashunim hazori onho sohibdevonand, har kadom sabki khosi khud, joyu makon va maqomi kheshro dorand. Onho dar ashori khud az nazokat, nerui aqloni, hunari sukhanvariyu sanati sukhani khud yod karda, norasoii hamkasboni kheshro niz yodras namudaand. Masalan, Manuchehrii Domhoni (nimai avvali asri XI) meguyad:

SHer noguftan beh az shere, ki boshad nodurust,

Bachcha nozodan beh az shashmoha bifkandan jashsh.

Hadafi shoir dar in bayt ejodi badero farzandi ejodkor guftan buda, u sherro farzandi shoir medonad va boyad hamatarafa dar kamoloti ejod say namud, to nuqsone dar on roh nayobad. YO khud Hoqonii SHarvoni bad az Hakim Sanoii Gaznavi duyumin shoir ast, ki dar ashori khud bo olami ulvi saru kor megirad, zero az shoiron hampanjai khudro nameyobad. CHunonchi, u meguyad:

Sukhan guftan ba ki khatm ast, medonivu mepursi,

Falakro bin, ki meguyad: ba Hoqoni, ba Hoqoni.

YAne ba hamin tariq, shoiron bartariyu afzaliyati hunari khudro vasf namudavu nuqsoni ashori hampeshagonashonro khotirrason kardaand. Masalan, Unsurii Balkhi-shoiri nimai avvali asri XI darbori Gaznaviyon-avvalin malikushshuaro dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik ast, vale Hoqoni uro bo on sarzanish mekunad, ki ba juz gazalu qasidasaroi hunari digar nadorad:

Juz az tarzi madhu tirozi gazal

Nakardi zi tab imtihon Unsuri.

SHinosand afozil, ki chun man nabud

Ba madhu Hazal durfishon Unsuri.

Zi dah sheva, k-on hilyati shoirist,

Ba yak sheva shud doston Unsuri.

Na tahqiq guftu na vazu na zuhd,

Ki harfe nadonist az on Unsuri.

Maro shevai khosu tozastu dosht

Hamon shevai boston Unsuri.

In andeshahoi shoiron-ejodkoron baroi peshrafti ilmi adabiyotshinosi kumaki farovon menamoyand, zero dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik on ba hukmi anana daromadaast.

Adabiyoti badei majmui donishu tafakkur, mahoratu istedod, tabu tavon, khudshinosiyu jahonbinii adib ast. CHun adib ba in va yo on khalqe, millate taalluq dorad, pas adabiyot burdu bokhti mafkuravii hamon khalq, simoi hamon millat meboshad.

Adabiyoti badei hamchun navi sanat, yane sanati sukhanu sukhanvari nisbat ba navhoi digari sanat: memori, haykaltaroshi, musiqi, teatru kino va Hayra dar jamiyat tasiri beshtar dorad. Zero yake az sarchashmahoi asosii navhoi digari sanat niz adabiyoti badei ast. Murodu maqsad va hadafi ejodkor az adabiyot tarbiyai omma, talimi mardum buda, ba in mani hazrati Sadi meguyad:

Murodi mo nasihat budu guftem, Havolat bo Hudo kardemu raftem.

Adabiyoti badei hissiyotu hayajoni insonro angezish medihad, odamonro az pastivu balandiho, shebu farozho, burdu bokhtho, chunu charoho, beshu kamiho, tazodhoi hayotu zindagi, ruydodhoi olam ogoh mesozad. Firdavsi dar «SHohnoma»-i khud az paydoishi olamu odam, az zuhuri nakhustin shoh-Kayumars to istiloi arab, to okhirin shohi sulolai Sosoniyon-YAzdigurdi III (soli 651 melodi) sukhan rondaast. Dar mantiqi odditari ifodai mazkur dar «SHohnoma»-i hakim Firdavsi mo sarguzashti 50-shohro mebinem. «SHohnoma» moli adabiyot-sher ast va ejodkori on shoiri hakimi Tusi. Magar akhbori u az akhbori sarchashmahoi tarikhi bo tafsilu mutamad va boarzishtaru sudmandtar nest?!, Az in ru, adabiyoti badei dar jomea, pesh az hama, naqshi tarbiyavi va talimi dorad. Dar barobari on, adabiyoti badei ba hissu taassuroti khonanda tasir rasonida, ba hodisahoi musbati hayot tavajjuhi uro bedor mesozad, uro bo hayotu zindagi dilgarm namuda, ba muborizahovu taloshhoi ruzgor omoda menamoyad. Honandaro nisbat ba arzishhoi umumiinsoni:   khalqdusti, vatanparvari, ilmdusti, kasbomuzi,

mehnatqarini, halolkori, nafrasoni, sofdili, halimi, mehruboni, khushmuomilagi, sherdili, Hayuri, subotkori, daleri, shujoatkori, shikastanafsi, durandeshi va Hayra muhabbati beandoza barmeangezad. Adabiyoti badei dar sirati inson baroi bedor namudani hissiyoti zeboi va idealhoi hayotii u yake az muhimtarin vositahoi barangezish ast.

Tamomi yodgorihoi khattii adabiyoti badei, ki dar shakli nazmu nasr ejod gardidavu mahfuz mondaand, merosi adabi nom dorand. Merosi adabiro Hanovati manavi, khazinai zehni, bardoshthoi mafkuravi, hofizai tarikhi, quti jon va Hizoi ruh niz menomand. Dar in joda khalqi tojik hampanja nadorad, zero tanho shoironi sohibdevon dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik besh az shashunim hazor buda, ashori shoironi devonashon mahfuz namondavu osori mansuri talifgardida ba on dokhil nameshavand. In osor ba qavle tarikhi hashthazorsola doshta, to kunun az on kokhi begazandi niyogon 108 matni khattii (az yodgorihoi ahdi boston) to inkishofi islom boqi mondaast, ki az onho 16-toyashro andarznomaho faroham ovardaand.

Boyad guft, ki in osor to okhiri asri HU-to zuhuri davlathoi Safaviho (dar Eron) va SHayboniho (dar Movarounnahru Huroson) miyoni forsizabononi qalamravi mazkur mushtarak ast va az in ru, dar ilmi adabiyotshinosi istilohi fors-tojik qabul gardidaast, ki mafhumi zikrshuda mohiyati mushtarak budani osori adabiro ifoda menamoyad.

Dar talifi in kitob imloi ismhoi khos, khususan nomu nasabi adibon tajdidi nazar karda shud. YAne, ba joi Abu-Abdulloh-Abuabdulloh, Nasriddini Tusi – Nasiruddini Tusi, Abdurahmon -Abdurrahmon, Jaloliddin-Jaloluddin, SHervon-SHarvon, Hajviri-Hujviri, Hisrav- Husrav va gayra navishta shudaand.

Adabiyoti ilovagiro alohida, dar intihoi kitob niz ba du qism judo namuda, onhoro vobasta ba asrho peshnihod namudem, yane avval nuskhai asl-osori adibon (sarchashmaho) va pas az on asaru maqolahoi ilmi- tadqiqoti joy doda shud.

[1]       Mashib-piri, kuhansoli

[2]       Naqib-peshvo

[3]       Naffot-otashboz, partavafruz.

[4]         Muhib-bohaybat

[5]      Kaib-gamgin

[6]   Hullai qasib-libosi abreshimin

[7]   Ratib-tar, namnok

[8]   Qazib-shokh, shokha,

[9]   Hazib-rangin

[10]   Mujib-javobdihanda

[11]   Zer-pardae az musiqi

[12]   Hasib-sohibi fazilat

[13]   SHebu teb-sargashta, oshufta

[14]   Rej-murod, maqsad

[15]   Ridakon-Hulombachaho

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