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ADABIYOTI ASRI XVIII VA NIMAI AVVALI ASRI XIX

Vaziyati siyosii Osiyoi Miyona: Vaziyati siyosiyu tarikhi va ijtimoii Osiyoi Miyona dar nimai duyumi asri XVIII va ogozi asri XIX baso sanginu murakkab gardida, in holat hanuz az ahdi Abdulazizkhoni Ashtarkhoni (1645-1680) va Subhonqulikhon (1680-1702) shuru shuda bud. Ubaydullohkhon (1702-1711) kushishi peshgiri namudani onro karda boshad ham, natija nadod va khudi u ba qatl rasonida shud.

Dar zamoni hukmronii okhirin namoyandai khonadoni Ashtarkhoni – Abulfayzkhon (1711-1747) vaziyati kishvar tamoman kharob gardid. Zero in qarib ba korhoi mamlakatdori hokim ahamiyat namedod. In bud, ki hokimi Eron – Nodirshohi Afshor (1688-1747) soli 1740 ba sarzamini Movarounnahr hujum karda, quvvahoi Nodirshoh be didani muqobiliyati shadide ba Bukhoro vorid shudand.

Dar in jang Muhammadhakim atolik – firistodai Abulfayzkhon baroi muzokirot ba nazdi Nodirshoh niz khiyonat mekunad. U bar nafi Nodirshoh amal menamoyad. Pisari Muhammadhakim – Muhammadrahimbi dar Eron ba bovarii Nodirshoh daromada, badho bo bahonai janozai padarash va kumak ba Abulfayzkhon va zarba zadan ba Ibodullohbi dar Kattaqurgon ba Bukhoro meoyad. Dar haqiqat, Rahimbi isyoni Ibodullohbiro shikast doda, soli 1747 Abulfayzkhonro dar madrasai Miri arab ba qatl merasonad. Ba hamin tariq, okhirin namoyandai Ashtarkhoniho az safhai tarikh rafta, ba joi in sulola saltanati Mangitiho sar meshavad.

Rahimkhon soli 1754 ba yak qator shahrhoi Movarounnahr lashkar kashida, dar shahrhoi Miyonkolot, SHahrisabz, Uroteppa, Qarshi, Urgut, Panjakent, Hisor va gayra poyai davlatashro ustuvor megardonad.

Rahimkhon soli 1758 vafot mekunad va ba joi u amakash – Amir Doniyol (1758-1785) ba takht menishinad. Vale dere naguzashta hokimoni mahalli muqobili u isyonho barmeangezand. Az jumla, hokimoni shahrhoi Uroteppa – Fozilbi, SHahrisabz – Beknazarbi, Koson – Butabi, Guzor- Dustqarobi va digaron. Badi pakhshi chunin isyonho, albatta, ahvoli mamlakat khele bad shuda bud. Bad az vafoti Doniyol (soli 1785) pisari u – SHohmurod (1785-1800) sohibi takht shud. In mardi sufimashrab shakhsiyati oddivu khoksore buda, hatto Davlatkushbegi va Qozi Nizomuddinro dar huzuri omma baroi gunohhoyashon ba qatl merasonad. Dar tarikhi sulolai Mangitiho hukmronii SHohmurod khele odilona va dar haddi insof bud. U qarib hamai hokimoni mahalliro ivaz mekunad va mansabdoronro sanjida, ba har vazifae tain menamoyad.

Amir SHohmurod baroi obodonii shahrhoi Samarqandu Bukhoro kushish namuda, peshi rohi besaru somonihoro to andozae megirad.

Soli 1800, pas az vafoti SHohmurod, pisari u-Haydar (1800-26) ba takht meshinad. Amir Haydar mudarrisi niz mekardaast. Bad az vafoti Haydar pisari vay – Nasrulloh (1826-1860) va badi Nasrulloh pisari u – Muzaffar (1860-1885) amir meshavand.

Dar ogozi asri XIX misli aminona, muhrona, mirobona, vakilona, muhosilona, haqqi tarozu va gayra navhoi andoz ziyod meshavad. In ast, ki dar davrahoi gunoguni asrhoi H^SH-H1H bisyor isyonhoi khalqi rukh dodaand.

Vaziyati Huqand. Vobasta ba on ki Nodirshoh Huqandro ishgol nakard, in sarzamin nisbat ba Bukhoro obodon boqi mond. Hokimi in qalamrav – Olimkhoni Huqandi (1799-1809) niz baze tadbirhoi khub bahri amniyati kishvar andeshida bud. U az hisobi mardumoni kuhistoni Darvozu Qarotegin va SHugnon dastai makhsuse sozmon doda, davii istiqlolkhohi menamoyad.

In bud, ki vay Toshkand va qavmhoi qazoqro, ki dar atrofi on budand, ba hududi davlati khud medarorad. Pas az Olimkhon barodari u – Umarkhon (1809-1822) niz siyosati barodarashro davom medihad va muvaffaq meshavad.

Umarkhon Turkiston va dashthoi qazoqnishinro az hududi bahri Aral to Haftrud tasarruf namuda, qismi ziyodi markazhoi qazoqu qirgiznishinro niz sohib meshavad. Bad az Umarkhon pisari vay – Muhammadalikhon (1822-1842) bahri vusati hududi davlati khud kushishho namuda, qalamravi Darvozu Qarotegin va hatto Kulobro ba zeri itoat medorad.

U Uroteppa va Qoshgarro niz tasarruf karda, hududi mamlakatashro khele vusat mebakhshad. Vale shakhsiyati amir chandon pisandi mardum nameshavad, zero vay beshtar ba ayshu nush ru meorad. In bud, ki Amir Nasrulloh Huqandro zabt namuda, Muhammadalikhon va modaru barodarashro niz nest mekunad. Idorakunii Huqandro ba uhdai Ibrohim Hayol nom hokim meguzorad. Hukumati Ibrohim der davom namekunad va Huqand boz mustaqil meshavad.

Holati siyosii Horazm niz chandon khub nabud, zero miyoni khonigarihoi Horazmu Bukhoro va Huqand hamesha nizoho mavjud budand. Az sababi on ki Marv ba ikhtiyori hokimi Bukhoro zuran barovarda shuda bud, khoni Horazm – Eltuzarkhon ba Bukhoro lashkar mekashad. Honi Horazm komilan komyob nashuda boshad ham, vaziyati Bukhororo murakkab namud. Zero Huqand niz yak qator shahrhoi tobei Bukhororo tasarruf karda bud. Az jumla, yak qismati Turkiston, Haftrud, Qazoqistoni Janubi, SHugnon, Darvozu Qarotegin, Vakhon ba ikhtiyori miri Huqand daromada budand.

Umuman, in kashmakashihoi bemani va in besarusomoniho holati kishvar va khalqi mehnatkashro khele vazninu noguvor karda budand.

Dar asri XVIII dar qalamravi Afgonistoni kununi niz tagyiroti jiddi ba vujud omad. SHohi Eron -Nodirshohi Afshor (1736-1747) ba khonigarihoi khurd-khurdi qalamravi Afgoniston khotima guzoshta, tamomi hududi hamonvaqtai Afgonistonro ba hayati imperiyai khud dokhil namud. Bad az vafoti Nodirshoh dar Afgoniston davlati Durroniyon (1747 – 1818) tasis yoft, ki asosguzori on Ahmadshohi Durroni (1747-1773) bud. Qalamravi on dar hamon vaqt az Mashhad to Kashmir va az Amu to bahri Arab bud. Soli 1818 davlati Durroniyon parokanda shuda, ba khonigarihoi khurd-khurd taqsim gardid. Az jumla ba khonigarihoi Kobul, Qandahor, Peshovar, Hirot, ki muqtadiri onho Kobul bud. Hokimi on – Dustmuhammadkhon (1826-63) baroi yakporchagi kushishi ziyod kard, vale hamai kushishhoyash benatija mondand. Zero anglisho ba in mone shudand. Soli 1838 armiyahoi anglisho va hinduho ba Afgoniston hujum karda, hukumati SHujoro tasis dodand, vale ozodikhohon uro qabul nakardand.

Soli 1842 u ba qatl rasonida shud. Soli 1878 armiyai 36.000 nafarai anglisivu hindi Afgonistonro boz zabt namud va in kishvar rasman mustamlikai Angliya gardid.

Dar qalamravi Eron boshad davlati Safaviyon, ki avvalhoi asri XVI barpo shuda bud, to asri XVIII davom kard. Okhirhoi asri XVIII Qochoriho ba sari hokimiyat omadand va to soli 1925 hukumat kardand.

Ba hamin tariq, Hinduston, Eron, Afgoniston va Osiyoi Miyona zeri tasiri siyosati Rossiyai podshohi va Angliya monda budand. Tanho Rossiya pas az Inqilobi Oktyabr siyosati khudro dar hamai samthoi davlatdori tagyir dod, vale siyosati mustamlikadorii Angliya to miyonahoi asri HH idoma kard.

Havza va markazhoi adabi

Dar asri XVIII va ogozi asri XIX dar tarikhi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, sarfi nazar az nobasomonihoi davr, junbishi tozai adabi zuhur kard. Dar in davra hayoti adabi asosan dar se markazi siyosi – mamuri va farhangi-adabi: Bukhoro, Huqand va Heva (Horazm) rivoj yoft. Inchunin, hamin junbishi adabi na tanho shahrhoi zikrshuda, balki tamomi qalamravi Osiyoi Miyona, yane shahrhoi muzofotiro ham faro girift. Az jumla doirahoi adabi dar Samarqand, Kattaqurgon, Miyonkol, SHahrisabz, Hujand, Uroteppa, Hisor, Kulob, Qarotegin, Darvoz, Badakhshon va digar shahrho faol gashtand.

YAke az doirahoi adabii bonufuzi in davra markazi khonigarii Heva- shahri Urganj meboshad. Tafovuti in doirai adabi nisbat ba doirahoi digar on ast, ki adabiyoti badei dar in markaz goliban ba zaboni uzbeki inkishof meyoft va osori adabii ba zaboni tojiki ejodshuda nisbatan kamtar ba nazar merasad. Digar khususiyati in havzai adabi in ast, ki bisyor osori badei va tarikhi az zaboni tojiki ba zaboni uzbeki tarjuma karda shudand az jumla: «Tutinoma»-i Ziyoi Nakhshabi, «Haft paykar»-i Nizomii Ganjavi, «Guliston»-i Sadi, «Bahoriston», «YUsuf va Zulaykho», «Salomon va Absol»-i Abdarrahmoni Jomi, «Badoe-ul-vaqoe»-i Zaynuddini Vosifi, «SHohu Darvesh»-i Hiloli va gayra. Az osori tarikhi boshad, «Habib-us-siyar»-i Hondamir, «Ravzat- us-safo»-i Mirkhond va az nasri khalqi «CHor darvesh» ba zaboni uzbeki tarjuma shudand. Dar in kor sahmi sarvari in maktabi adabi – Munisi Horazmi baso buzurg meboshad.

Az tarafi digar, ba in vosita in mardi sharif dustii khalqhoi tojiku uzbekro taqviyat bakhshida, irtiboti farhangi-adabii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyonaro mustahkamtar namudaast.

Digar doirai adabii shuhratmand dar on ruzgor doirai adabii Huqand ba shumor meravad, ki on dar ahdi Olimkhoni Huqandi (1799- 1809) tashakkul yofta, dar ruzgori amir Umarkhon (1809-1822) etibori khosa paydo kardaast.

Ba in doirai adabi az digar gushavu kanorho quvvahoi adabi jam omada budand. In albatta, az nufuzi on shahodat medihad. Abdulkarim Fazlii Namangoni dar tazkirai khud «Majmuat-ush-shuaro» takid mekunad, ki 75 tan quvvahoi adabi az digar joyho ba in havzai adabi omadaand. Zero khudi amir Umarkhon shoir buda, sheru adabro qadrshinosi mekardaast. Hatto az Bukhoro adiboni chun Umedi Samarqandi, Kamoli Bukhoroi, Junaydullohi Hoziq, SHavqi, Vahshi, Mushtoqi SHahrisabzi, Mahzuni Samarqandi va digaron ba in doirai adabi omada budand. Inchunin, baze adibone ham budand, ki onhoro maddohoni amir Umarkhon guftan mumkin ast. Onho Vazir, Ado, Nola, Mayus, Afsus, Dabir, Nusrat, Hotif, Hijlat, Fazli va digaron budand. Dar in dira yak guruhi digari adibon-ejod koroni nisbatan haqguyu adolatjue niz budand, ki baze nuqsonu kambudihoro ruirost meguftand. Ba in toifa adibon Gulkhani, Makhmur, SHukhi, Nodir (Uzlat), Nozil va digaron dokhil meshavand.

Digar khususiyati khele muhimi doirai adabii Huqand in ast, ki adiboni havzai adabii mazkur shoironi zulisonayn (duzaboni) buda, bo zabonhoi tojiki va uzbeki asar ejod mekardand.

YAke az khususiyathoi jolibi doirai adabii Huqand boz az on iborat ast, ki in jo hajv nisbatan quvvat paydo karda bud. Az adiboni hajvgui in doirai adabi metavon chandero nombar kard. Az jumla Mahmudi Makhmur, Nozili Hujandi, Gulkhani va monandi inho, ki dar hunari hajvgui panjai nisbatan qavi doshtand.

CHunonchi, dar hajviyoti Avazmuhammad Nozili Hujandi, ki ba zabonhoi tojiki va uzbeki ejod mekard, kambudiho va norasoihoi zamonu muhit oshkoro bayon karda shudaand. Az jumla, baze az hajviyahoi adibro metavon zikr namud: «Dar hajvi Ibrohimi qiltamoq», «Dar hajvi Hakimi nonvoy», «Hajv dar haqqi narkhari nojins» va gayra, ki dar onho zohiru botini hajvshavandaho, maromu hadafi onho fosh karda shudaast.

Hususiyati digari doirai adabii Huqand az on iborat ast, ki dar on beshtar tattabuot yo javobiyagui rivoj girifta budaast. Aksari shoironi in havza ba ashori amir Umar javobiyaho guftaand.

Digar doirai bonufuzi adabii in davra doirai adabii Bukhoro ba shumor meravad. In doirai adabi az solhoi 30-yumi asri XVIII sar karda nisbatan ba inqirozi adabi duchor gardid. Albatta, in vobasta ba avzoi siyosi – tarikhii Bukhoro va kashmokashhoi dokhilii on bud. Tanho az solhoi 70-umi hamin asr sar karda, vaziyat nisbatan ru ba behbudi menihad. In behbudi daqiqan az davrai ba sari qudrat omadani amir SHohmurod ogoz shud. Dar in doirai adabi adibon az har shahru viloyat gird omada budand. Az zumrai on ejodkoron Mirzosodiqi Munshi, Muhammadsharifi Orif, Abdurrahmonkhojai Noseh, Junaydulohi Hoziq, Hasrati Hisfi, Parii Hisori, Rahimi Garmi va digaron (besh az 70 nafar) budand, ki boisi ravnaqi adabiyot dar havzai adabii mazkur shudand.

Ravnaqi adabiyot dar havzai Bukhoro nisbat ba doirahoi digari adabi susttar bud, zero hukumatdoroni Bukhoro ba sheru adab chandon ragbat nadoshtand. Az in ru, doirai adabii Bukhoro pesh az hama, bo on kharakternok ast, ki adabiyot goliban dar shahrho va navohii tobei Bukhoro nisbatan pesh raftaast. Adiboni qalamravi Bukhoro beshtar dar shahrhoi Hisor, Samarqand, Nasaf, SHahrisabz, Uroteppa, Kattakurgon va Darvozu Badakhshon gird omada, mahfilhoi adabiro obodu bonufuz mekardand. Ba khusus, dar zamoni hukumati Abdukarimbi va YAqub mahfili adabii Hisor nisbatan faoltar budaast. Az shoironi in doirai adabi Toshkhojai Irsi, Mirzo Olimjoni Hasrat, Mullo Rajabi Pari va digaron bo Bukhoro irtiboti qavi doshtaand.

Navhoi asosii adabi. Dar har se doirai adabi asosan janrhoi mamuli adabi tahavvul kardaast. Makhsusan gazal, musammat, ruboi, qita va masnavi nisbatan seristifoda budaand. YAke az janrhoi nisbatan mamuli davr gazal ba hisob meraft. Gazali in davra sunnati boshad ham, dar mavzui on andake ohanghoi ijtimoi: suzu gudoz, ohu nola, firoqu hijron balandtar sado dodaand.

Dar gazalho hasbi holi shoiron beshtar ba nazar merasad. Zamini namudani sabki gazal va dast kashidan az uslubi pechidabayoni niz mushohida meshavad. Mashhurtarin gazalsaroyoni in davra Mirzosodiq, Hoziq, Hasrat, Nozili Hujandi, Muztar, Mirzo Atoi Bukhoroi va digaron meboshand.

Mukhammas hamchun yak navi musammat dar in ahd to ba darajae rushd kardaast. Dar in asr musammati mukhammas va hardu navi on: ozod va tazmin dida meshavad. Bo vujudi on musammati mukhammasi tazmin beshtar ejod shudaast. SHoiron ba ashori Sadi, Hofiz, Husrav, Jomi, Hiloli, Soib, Bedil va adiboni zulisonayn, ba gazalhoi Navoiyu Fuzuli beshtar musammati mukhammas bastaand. Makhsusan, ba gazaliyoti Hofizu Bedil musammati mukhammas beshtar mushohida meshavad.

Ruboi niz yake az janrhoi nisbatan mamuli in davra ba shumor meravad. SHoirone, ki baroi idoma dodani sunnati ruboisaroi say kardaand, Mirzosodiq, Nosehi Hatloni, SHavqi, Nozil, Fano va digaron meboshand. Muhimtarin khususiyati ruboiyoti in ruzgor dar on zohir meshavad, ki dar ruboiyoti in ahd, khususan dar misrai chahorum zarbulmasalu maqolhoi khalqi beshtar istifoda shudaand. Umuman, ruboihoi irsolumasaldor beshtar duchor megardand. Albatta, in padidaro tamoyuli khalqiyati adabiyot guftan mumkin ast.

Qita ham misli navhoi digari adabi dar in davra nisbatan tahavvul kardaast. Muqattaoti adabiyoti sadai mazkur az nigohi hajm niz mamuli buda, goliban az du to 15-17 baytro tashkil dodaand. Az nigohi mazmunu muhtavo niz qitahoi in ahd andarzi, pandu akhloqi, shikvayu etiroz nisbat ba rejimi hukmron, tanqidu mazammati amiron, zolimon va gayra budand. Qitahoi madhi, vasfi, tarikhi niz khele ziyod meboshand. Namunai komili chunin qitahoro mo dar ejodiyoti Mirzosodiq, Jumaqulii Humuli duchor meoem.

Oid ba bunyodi masjidho, tavlidu vafoti shakhsiyathoi gunogun va gayra niz qitahoi ziyode ejod shudaand, ki az obodii davru zamon va etibori shakhsiyatho guvohi medihand. Umuman, shoiron Sodiq, Noseh, Hofiz, SHavqi, Nozil dar tahavvuli in janr sahmi sazovor dorand.

Qasida az mamultarinu mashhurtarin navhoi adabii in davra buda, bazan qonuniyathoi rushdu tahavvul va yo pastraviyu az inkishof bozmondani adabiyotro tamin namudaast. Dar okhirhoi asri XVIII va ogozi asri XIX qasida baso past raftaast. Tanazzuli qasida dar in davra dar muhiti adabii Bukhoro khele nazarras ast. Hatto baze shoiron, misli Qoneii Nasafi, Mirzo Atoi Bukhoroi, Mahzuni Samarqandi, Hajrii Darvozi va Forigi Hisori. qasida naguftaand. Dar devoni shoironi tavonoi in davra niz qasida khele kam dida meshavad.

Masalan, dar devoni Mirzosodiqi Munshi tanho du qasida, dar talifoti Junaydullohi Hoziq se qasida, dar devoni Gulmuhammadi Afgon se qasida mavjud ast. Tanazzuli janri qasida guvohi on ast, ki amironi Mangit ba ravnaqi sheru adab chandon etibor namedodaand va az in ru, ahli adab niz onhoro ba sifati mamduh namepaziruftand. In padida guvohi on ast, ki adibon az bayoni voqeiyat dur nashudaand. Dar qalamravi Movarounnahr nisbatan amir Umarkhon ba sheru adab tavajjuhi beshtar doshta boshad ham, vale qasidahoe, ki dar in doirai adabi ejod shudaand, taqlidi buda, dar onho tozakori va yo jolibiyate dar muqoisa bo peshiniyon ba nazar namerasad.

CHunonchi, Hoziq dar yak qasidai khesh khayoli ba khoriji kishvar safar kardani khudro bayon namuda, martabai ejodii kheshro tayin kardaast:

Atorud az sari shafqat, ki Hizri rohi man ast,

Namuda khobu khayoli maro chunon tabir:

Ki ay sitamkashi ayyom, in qadar gam chist,

Zi ruzgor chi nishastai chunin dilgir?

Turo ba ilmu hunar kist dar zamonai adl,

Turo ba donishu fan dar jahon kujost nazir?

 Kashida kilki tu khate ba nuskhai Buqrot,

SHikasta gavhari nazmi tu qadri sheri Zahir.

Ba gushae binishin sayri olam makun hargiz,

Ba holi khesh madeh roh in hama tamir,

Tu gar nishastai, sheri tu gashta haft iqlim,

Rasida gavhari nazmat ba gushi shohu vazir.

Dar in ahd qasoidi hajvi to andozae rushd kardaast, ki baze juziyoti ruzgor, nuqsonu norasoihoi davrro inikos menamoyad. CHunonchi, qasidai Hoziq, ki «Dar hajvi shoir Jaloli» nom dorad, namunai davii bolost.

Tavonotarin shoironi in ruzgor niz ba shoironi mashhuri guzashta, az jumla ba Husravu Jomivu Navoi tazmin – javobiya guftaand.

CHunonchi, Jomi guftaast:

Kunguri ayvoni shah, k-az kokhi Kayvon bartar ast,

Rakhnaho don, k-ash ba devori hisori din dar ast.

Az Navoi:

Otashin lale, ki toji khusravonro zevar ast,

Akhgare bahri khayoli khom pukhtan dar sar ast.

Hoziq dar javobi onho guftaast:

Podshohonro kujo bar afsare zarrintar ast,

Z-otashi savdoi hirs on chohi dude bar sar ast.

Masnavi yake az janrhoi mamul dar hama davru zamon buda, navhoi judogonai on bisyor qonuniyathoi inkishofu pastravii adabiyotro tamin namudaast. Az tarafi digar, adibon na tanho dar talifi anvoi liriki sahm giriftaand, balki dar ejodi osori epiki niz sahm guzoshtaast. In ast, ki dar in davra yak silsila osori dostoni niz talif shudaast. Masalan, Junaydullohi Hoziq dostoni «YUsuf va Zulaykho», Mirzosodiq- «Dakhmai shohon», Salohi Bukhoroi- «YUsuf va Zulaykho», Masehoi Boysuni – «Rano va Zebo», Muhammadnabii Ahqar – «Layliyu Majnun», Nosehi Hatloni- «Majlisafruz»-u «Hayratangez» va «Hadiqat-ur-rasul» va gayraro rui kor ovardaand. In osor, az yak taraf, ananaro nigoh doshta boshad va az tarafi digar, holati voqeii zamoni adibonro niz to andozae inikos namudaand. In holat, makhsusan dar manzumahoi «Rafi tumani Ohugiru Hayrobod» va «Ba dukhtare oshiq shudani darvesh»- i Mirzosodiq nisbatan jolib ba tasvir omadaast.

Rivoji tarikhnavisi. YAke az dastovardhoi ilmu farhang dar in asrho idoma bakhshidan ba sunnati tarikhnavisi meboshad. Asarhoi tarikhi dar in davra niz ejod shudaand va talifi in navi osor, pesh az hama, taqozoi zamon meboshad. Osori tarikhii sadai mazkur asosan, bo nasr navishta shudaand. Ba tariqi namuna metavon chande az on asarhoi mansuri tarikhiro zikr namud: «Tuhfai khoni»-i Muhammadvafoi Karminagi, «Toj-ut-tavorikh»-i Muhammadsharifi Naqi, «Gulshan-ul-muluk»-i Muhammadyaqub, «Muntakhab-ut-tavorikh»-i Hoji Hakimkhon, «Tarikhi amir Haydar»-i Mullo Muhammadsharifu Mullo Ibodullo va gayra. In asarho, az yak taraf, avzoi tarikhi davru zamon, holati tarikhii in va yo on davraro ravshan kunand, az tarafi digar, qonuniyathoi rushdu tahavvuloti nasri tarikhiro niz tahkim bakhshidaand. Inchunin, osori mazkur dar barobari arzishi tarikhi doshtan, baroi tadqiqi adabiyotu avzoi adabi va holati ilmu farhang kumaki farovon merasonad.

Guzashta az in, dar barobari osori mansuri tarikhi, boz asarhoi manzumi tarikhi dar in davra talif shudaand, ki az chand jihat muhim meboshand.

In asarho hamchun asari tarikhi, pesh az hama, arzishi tarikhi dorand, zero dar borai avzoi tarikhi- siyosii davr malumot medihand. Az tarafi digar, ahamiyati adabi- estetiki dorand, zero bo sher- bo hunari adabi va istedodi shoirona rui kor omadaand. To ba imruz az on osor du nomguy malumu dastras ast, ki yake «Fathnomai khoqoni»-i Abdulkholiqi Munshi va digare «Futuhoti amir SHohmurod dar Eron»- i Mirzosodiq meboshand.

Rivoji sabki hindi. Sabki hindi seyumin sabk dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik buda, ananahoi sabkhoi khurosoni va iroqiro chun sunnati tarzi talif paziruftaast. YAne in sabk ham jahonbini, sistemai obrazho, voqeoti adabi va tarzi yagonai tasvir dar davrai muayyan ast.

Az in nuqtai nazar, zaminahoi zuhuri on az asri XIII va aniqtarash az ejodiyoti Husravi Dehlavi ogoz gardida, az se marhala iborat ast. Marhalai avvali on to asri XVI va marhalai soni asri XVI – nimai avvali asri XVII buda, in marhalai komilan tashakkulyobii on ba shumor meravad. Marhalai seyumi on az ejodiyoti Bedil ibtido megirad, zero in padida to ba hadest, ki on bo nomi Bedil payvandi nogusastini doshta, dar adabiyot iborahoi «sabki bedili», «uslubi bedili», «tarzi bedili» va gayra mamul gashtaand.

Avvalin unsuri in sabk jahonbinii nav dar ejodi bade ast, ki ejodkori sukhani badei khudro hakim mehisobad, zero dar ejodi bade on metavonad haddi etidoli volotarin boshad: «Imruz na shoiram, hakimam…». Mushohidahoi ejodkoron niz baso mujarrabona va khele sanjidavu daqiq gardidaand, to ba dardi niyozmande darmon boshad. Ba qavli Mirzo Bedil:

Zi poi mur to boli magas sad bor sanjidam, Nashud beetiborihoi man sangi tarozue.

Mahz, ana hamin daqiqkorii ejodkoron dar sabki mazkur janbai hakimonai sherro taqviyat bakhshid. In padidai khayolangezu muassir, ki qalbu hissu idroki insonro taskhir menamoyad, irsoli masal yo irsoli masalayn (agar dar bayt boshad) ast, ki onro hosili istedod, donish va tajribai ejodkor metavon guft.

YAke az muhimtarin khususiyoti sabki hindi bayoni khalqi, tasvir va ashyovu ajzoi tasvirshavanda meboshad. Obrazhoi sheri, tasvirho va juziyoti tasvirshavanda hama az ruzgori ruzmarrai mardum ast, vale darki mohiyati ashyo na ba har kas dast medihad. Masalan, baroi namuna yak gazali shoiri tavonoi davr Husayni Donishro metavon zikr namud:

Na makhmuram, na mastam- turfa nayrangi tamoshoyam, Qiyomat nuskhai holam, chunin tafsiri simoyam. Tazallum boli parvozam, tahayyur nagmai sozam,

Na anjomam, na ogozam- sadoi boli anqoyam.

 Savodi nuskhai vahmam, gubori safhai bahram,

Nadoram imtiyozi hastii imruzu fardoyam.

Hujumi vahshatam, barqi tahayyur, vazi mazmunam, Kujo dar mulki mavhumi sarob aftoda hamtoyam.

 Ba chashmi duston khoram, na juz tahsili gam koram, Namudi ashki khunboram, ki galton bar zamin oyam. Daleli javhari fardam, nadimi mehnatu dardam, Nishoni orazi zardam, az in bishnos paydoyam.

Dar gazali bolo chahor bayt muhtavon purvusate dorad, ki hadafro murakkabtaru doirai tasvirro farokhtar menamoyad. «Na anjomam, na ogozam.» mohiyati falsafi doshta, hadafi ejodkorro dar marifati purvusattare rui tasvir meorad.

Umuman, gazali zikrshuda hasbiholi buda, holati qahramoni lirikiro khele muztaribona va hayajonangez ba tasvir giriftaast.

Dar tashakkuli sabki hindi shoiron Bobofigoni, Urfii SHerozi, Ganii Kashmiri, Soibi Tabrezi, Tolibi Omuli, Nosiralii Sarhindi maqomi arzanda dorand.

Masalan, tasiri ejodiyoti Tolibi Omuli ba shoironi minbada va makhsusan ba Soibi Tabrezi khele ziyod his karda meshavad. Vale hanuz dar ashori Tolib bayon, dar majmu, murakkab nest. CHunonchi, Tolibi Omuli meguyad:

Dur az tu rangi sabzavu sunbul nadidaam, Sad rah ba bog raftaamu gul nadidaam.

Hubon hazor sheva namoyandu man zi yor,

To didaam ba gayri tagoful nadidaam.

Tolib, zaboni tutii dehlinajodro,

CHuz dar dahoni bulbuli Omul nadidaam.

Tarzi bayoni shoiron tadrijan ru ba murakkabi ovardan megirad.

YAke az muhimtarin khususiyoti sabki hindi dar sokhtori bayt niz zohir megardad. In khususiyat on ast, ki dar misrai avval andeshai shoir ba tavri muhokima bayon gardida, dar misrai duyum bo dalelhoi bisyor qavi asosnok karda meshavad va misrai duyum janbai qatii hukmro megirad. CHunonchi, in baythoi Nozimi Hiravi:

Baski az shirinii guftor talkhi didaam,

CHun zaboni mor kilki tarzabonam megazad.

YO khud:

Sarafroz ast khurshed az qazoi hojati mardum,

Ba kori khud qalam az jo chu khezad, sarnagun boshad.

YO in ki Ganii Kashmiri meguyad:

Odami khoki zi khomi dorad az may ijtinob[1],

 Kuzai gil pukhta megardad, nametarsad zi ob.

Va yo bayti zerini SHavkati Bukhoroi, ki khele hunarmandona ast:

Gariqi bahri vahdat jilvai kasrat namebinad,

Zi zeri ob natvon did mavji obi daryoro.

Sabki hindi dar qalamravi Hinduston va sonitar dar Movarounnahr va qalamravi Afgoniston beshtar vusat paydo namuda boshad ham, dar qalamravi Eron chandon khush qabul nashudaast. Hatto yake az buzurgtarin sabkshinoson Malikushshuaro Bahor meguyad:

Sabki hindi garchi sabke toza bud, uro zafi beandoza bud. Fikrho sustu takhayyulho ajib,

SHeri purmazmun, vale nodilfireb.

 V-az fasohat benasib.

Agar shoironi qablan nombarshuda dar tahavvuloti sabki hindi sahmi arzanda guzoshta boshand, badtar simoi adabie zuhur namud, ki in ravandi adabi, in jarayoni ejodiro ba avji aloyash rasonid va in korro to ba hadde somon dod, ki iborai «sabki bedili» ba miyon omad va

in tarzi bayoni murakkab va pechidagii bayoni ejodiro saravval khudi Bedil his karda, meguyad:

Manii balandi man fahmi tund mekhohad,
Sayri fikram oson nest, kuhamu kutal doram.

Malum ast, ki ejodiyoti Bedil komilan dar muhiti Hinduston jarayon girifta, dar hamon jo rushdu numu kardaast. Sabki Bedil, ba khusus, dar asri XVIII, dar qalamravi Hinduston nufuzi buzurg paydo namud. In davrae bud, ki sabki hindi tavassuti ejodiyoti Bedil hulul shud va sabki bedili mashhur gardid. Hatto dar davroni minbada shoiron Munshi, Irsi, Parii Hisori, Junaydullohi Hoziq, Madan, Najibi Hindi, Hodii Samarqandi va digaron khele va khele zeri tasiri Bedil ejodiyoti khudro ba roh mondaand.

CHi tarz va to kadom daraja surat giriftani sabki hindi tavassuti ejodiyoti Bedil masalai hanuz khele pechida ast, vale holo haminro mesazad takid namud, ki dar murakkabshavii sabki hindi Bedil bo istedodu donishi qavi, bo hunari ejod va bo jahonbinii purvusat vorid shud. In bud, ki sabki mazkur ejodiyoti uro natavonist taskhir kunad, vale u tavonist sabki jorii zamonro ba zeri tasiri khesh bigirad va dar hamin zamina tozakoriho bikunad. Zero shere, ki Bedil dar sinni 10-solagi gufta bud, hej murakkabi nadosht va komilan oddivu sodda bud:

YOram har gah dar sukhan meoyad,

Bui ajibesh az dahon meoyad.

In bui qalamfur ast yo nakhati gul,

YO roihai mushki Hutan meoyad.

Badtar zeri tasiri sabki davr in tarzi bayon chunin tashakkul namud:

Homushnafase, ki tabi mavzun dorad,

Sad guncha bahor az dili purkhun dorad.

Taskhiri parizodi sukhan oson nest,

In jo nafasi sukhta afsun dorad.

Muhimtarin khususiyatho dar tadrijan murakkab gardidani tarzi bayon dar on zohir megardad, ki mo dar tarzi bayoni afkori adabi-badei muhokimai tozai falsafi-irfoni va mantiqi khele qaviro duchor meshavem, ki darki on na ba har kas dast medihad. In tarzi murakkabi bayon dar leksikai ifodai fikr niz tasiri komil guzoshtaast. Az in ru, khonanda beshtar kalimahoi khudsoz (yane khosi khudi shoir), murakkabro, ki bazan az chor yo panj kalima niz sokhta shudaand, duchor mekunad: asarparvard, pareshonruzgor, khomushnafas, ramzoshno, vusatobod, silamushtoq va gayra. Aloqamandona bo kalimahoi nodir iborahoi jolib niz ba nazar merasand: adabgohi muhabbat, pahlui ajz, mehri ashk, parizodi sukhan, khuni nafas, ramzoshnoi mani, libosi khunbofta, khasmi zabunyofta, khayoli qomat va gayra. CHunonchi, ba in gazali Bedili Dehlavi agar zehn monda shavad, hunari shoir dar intikhobi lafz, javobguzorii kalimaho, korgiri az nahv, intikhobi vazn, istifodai qofiya, radif va besh az inho, mazmunsozivu khayolbofi va gayra behtar manzur megardad:

Hirs fursatintizoru davri rang ast osiyo,

Dil zi navbat jam kun, pur bedirang ast osiyo.

Sayi ruzi bo banoi beamon jushidan ast,

Beshtar dar gardish az bodi tufang ast osiyo.

YAk nadomat[2] kori chandin donai dil meunad,

 Gar tavoni dast bar ham sud, nang ast osiyo.

Az manu mo har chi anduzi, gudozi nestist,

Oshiqi in khirmani otashbachang ast osiyo.

Sang ham oyinai tahqiq sayqal mezanad,

Umrho shud dar taloshi rafi zang ast osiyo.

 To qiyomat gardishi aflok dar kor astu bas,

Kas nafahmid on, ki megardad, chi rang ast osiyo.

 To nafas boqist, girdi rizq megardida bosh,

Ob chun vomonad az raftor, lang ast osiyo,

Zeri gardun noumedi amn to kay zistan?

Donaho z-in jo burun oyad tang ast osiyo,

Osmon ham to kujo dar fikri mardum tag zanad

Baski ruzikhor bisyor ast, dang ast osiyo.

Ne zaminat ofiyatgoh ast, ne charkhi baland,

To chi khohi tarf bast? Okhir dusang ast osiyo

Bedil, az gardun salomat chashm natvon doshtan,

Alvido, ay dona, gu: komi nahang ast osiyo.

Dar gazali zikrshuda az nigohi korburdi kalimaho alfozi khosi sabki Bedil ba nazar merasand, ki hud yake az khususiyathoi shevai ejodi in shoiri tavonost. Masalan, kalimahoi fursatintizor, otashbachang, ofiyatgoh va yo iborahoi davri rang, bodi tufang, donai dil, gudozi nesti, oyinai tahqiq, noumedi amn va monandi inho, ki dar chunin shakl miyoni mardum mamulu jori nestand.

Gazal mohiyati ijtimoi doshta, hadaf nafsi inson va harisii u bahri az dunyo hosil namudani foida buda, sayi ba dast ovardani sud mushkil ast. Kibru gurur bejost va inson boyad payvasta dar taloshi rizqu ruzi boshad, zero be in misli on meboshad, ki sanghoi osiyo beob hejand.

Umuman, inson ba donahoi gandum va dunyo ba osiyo monand karda shudaast, ki az nigohi hunar va badeiyot khele jolib meboshad.

Asrori ejodi Bedil barin haykali buzurgi nazm, albatta, to ba imruz nokushudavu pinhon ast, vale in jihat rushan ast, ki tasiri Bedil ba asri khud va ejodkoroni minbada nihoyat buzurg ast. Hususan ba ejodiyoti SHohin, Savdo, Asiri, Hayrat, Rahmatullohi Vozeh, Naqibkhoni Tugral, Zufarkhon Javhari tasiri maktabi Bedil khele khub mushohida meshavad. Adabiyotshinoson Zufarkhon Javhariro okhirin namoyandai maktabi Bedil dar Osiyoi Miyona guftaand, ki voqean saheh ast. Muhabbate, ki ba ejodiyoti Bedil adiboni qalamravi Movarounnahr doshtand, dar digar kishvarho to ba in had nabudaast. Masalan, Naqibkhoni Tugral meguyad:

Baland ast az falak mavoi Bedil,

Naboshad hech kasro joi Bedil.

Namoyam tutiyoi didai khesh,

 Agar yobam gubori poi Bedil.

Nadidam az sukhanguyoni olam,

Kasero dar jahon hamtoi Bedil.

Agar kuh ast, boshad Turi Sino

V-agar daryo buvad, daryoi Bedil

. Dili aflokro sozad mushabbak[3]

Livoi himmati voloi Bedil,

Ba mijgon metavonam kard berun,

Agar khore khalad dar poi Bedil.

Nameyobam kunun kholi dilamro,

 Zamone az gamu savdoi Bedil.

 Qaboi atlasi nuh charkhi gardun

Buvad kutoh bar boloi Bedil.

Ba rafat[4] bartar ast az kuh, Tugral,

Janobi hazrati Mirzoi Bedil.

SAVOL VA SUPORISHHO:

  1. Doir ba vaziyati siyosi-tarikhii Osiyoi Miyona dar okhiri asri XVIII va avvali asri XIX chi medoned?
  2. Dar in davra kadom sulolai tarikhi hukmroni mekard?
  3. Sababhoi bejang ba Bukhoro vorid gardidani Nodirshohi Afshor chi bud?
  4. Sulolai mangitiho kay ba sari qudrat omad va dar in davra kadom tagyirot rukh dod?
  5. Sababhoi tanazzuli hukmronii amir Doniyolro gued.
  6. Ayyomi saltanati amir SHohmurodro naql kuned.
  7. Dar khususi munosibat va raqobathoi khonigarihoi Osiyoi Miyona, Afgoniston va Eron chi medoned?
  8. Doir ba markazhoi farahangi- adabii in davra malumot dihed.
  9. Umumiyat va tafovuti doirahoi adabii davrai mazkurro sharh dihed.
  10. Kadom khususiyathoi adabiyoti in davraro medoned?
  11. Kadom navhoi adabi dar in davra beshtar rivoj yoftaand?
  12. Mashhurtarin shoironi gazalsaroi davrro nombar kuned.
  13. Inkishofi masnavi va masnavisaroyoni mashhuri in ahdro gued.
  14. Oid ba tashakkul va takomuli sabki hindi malumot dihed.
  15. CHaro shoironi in davra ba poyai Bedil rasida natavonistaand?

[1]     Ijtinob – parhez.

[2]     Nadomat – pushaymoni, afsus.

[3]     Mushabbak – surokhdor, surokh -surokh.

[4]     Rafat – buzurgi; balandi.

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