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ADABIYOTI ARABIZABON

Soli 81hijri/700 milodi dar tamomi qalamravi «khilofati roshidin», ki allakay az hududi kishvarhoi arabinishin berun baromada, mamoliki  mutaaddidai gunogunzabonro faro megirift, arabi zaboni davlati elon gardida, korguzori dar in zabon amali meshud. Az soli 742 dar Hurosonu Movarounnahr niz donistani zaboni arabi baroi mamuroni davlati hatmivu majburi bud. Zaboni ahkomi dinu qonunguzori kayho arabi shuda bud. In holat bois shud, ki  adabiyoti mardumoni eroninajod dar tuli qarib 200 soli tasalluti arab asosan ba zaboni arabi insho gardad. Ammo sahmi shoistai eroniho dar inkishofi adabiyot, ilm, falsafa va, umuman, farhangi arabizabon az on iborat bud, ki onho dar bunyodi tamadduni umumiarabi na faqat qishri sof eroniro ba vujud ovardand, balki asarhoi ziyodi yunoni, hindi va Eroni bostonro ba zaboni arabi bargardonida, zaminai mustahkami nasru falsafai arabro ba miyon ovardand.

Asarhoi mutaaddid va base sudmandi ilmii eronizodagon Abdulloh ibni Al-Muqaffa (724-759), Abdulhomid al-Kotib (vaf. 750), Al-Horazmi (780-847), Ibni Hurdodbeh (820- taqr. 912), Tabari (vaf. 923), Abunasri Forobi (870-950), Saolabi (961-1038), Aburayhoni Beruni (973-1046), Abuali ibni Sino (980-1037) va digaron hama ba arabist. Ammo shoironi eroninajod Bashshor ibni Burd (741-784), Abunuvos (762-813), shoiri sugdi Al-Huraymi, Ibni Rumi (836—896)  va digaron asarhoi sof arabi navishtaand. Qarib hamai ashkhosi nombarshuda payravonu havodoron va yo nekbinoni firqahoi shuubiya va ikhvonussafo buda, niyyati onro doshtaand, ki  az bayni musulmonho tafriqai najodivu nobarobarii qavmiro bardoshta, bar ziddi nasabparasti muboriza barand, dini muhammadiro bo falsafai yunoni omezish doda, aqidai musulmoniro az khurofoti khushk bari sozand.

Nakhustin eronipisare, ki dar takomulu tahavvuli adabiyoti arab sahmi arzanda guzosht, Abdulloh ibni Muqaffa  bud,  ki  aslan  Ruzbehi  pisari Dodbeh nom dosht.  Vay dar qasabai Juri Firuzobod az khonadoni  zardushti ba dunyo omada, nazdi padar zaboni pahlavi va oyini zardushti omukhta, sipas dar Basra zaboni arabiro az khud  kard.  Az  20-solagi   ba  tarjumavu  tadvini  osori pahlavi   ba  arabi  mashgul  bud.  «Hudoynoma»,  «Oyinnoma»,   «Mazdaknoma»,   «Kitob-ut-toj»   va   «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro, ki badho olamgir  shud, Ibni Muqaffa az pahlavi ba arabi gardondaast. «Risolat-us-sahoba» dar   oynni   kishvardori,   «Al-adab-ul-kabir»   dar   siyosatu  odobi   muoshirat,   «Al-adab-us-sagir»  dar   akhloq va gayraho ba qalami Ibni Muqaffa taalluq dorand. Osori  Ibni  Muqaffa dar  jazobatu  balogat  mumtoz buda,  sabku uslubash muddatho  sarmashqi ejodi navisandagoni arab ba shumor meraft. Abdulloh ibni Muqaffa az  qahramontarin  namoyandagoni   shuubiya bud.  ki  iftikhori eroniyonro vasf menamud, padidahoi bikri tamaddunu odobi eroniro targib    mekard.    Oqibat,   uro dushmanoni goyaviash bo shikanjaho ba qatl rasonidand.

Anosiri   farhangu   tafakkuri   eroni   ba   adabiyoti arabi,   ki  minbada   marbuti  khalqhoi  ziyode  gardida bud, jiloi tozae bakhshida, ba vija badi az hokimiyat mahrum gardidani Bani Umiyya   (661—750)   va ba sari qudrat omadani  Abbosiyon   (750—1258)   eroniyon  nasru nazmi arabiro bo maonii daqiqu muhtavoi toza gani gardonda, unsurhoi tamaddunu afkori  eroninajodoni shahrnishinro  ba  odotu   afkori   badaviyoni   sahrogard vorid  ovardand  va   zikri   iftikhori  eroniro  dar   adabi arabi ravnaq bakhshidand.

Az jumlai qadimtarin shoironi eroninajod,  ki  sheri  arabi surudaast, zodai  Isfahon  Ziyod al-Ajam  bud, ki dar  Huroson mezist. Dar tafokhur  az nasabi eronii khud besh az hama Bashshor ibni Burd peshdasti dosht, ki az shohzodagoni Takhoriston buda, dar ashorash daleriyu qahramoni va muqaddasoti ajdodi eronii khudro surudavu situda, arabhoro nah zadavu  mazoh mekard, kanizakonu    muganniyaho va zanhoi kuchagiro vasf menamud, khudro zindiqa menomid, dar tasviri sharobu maygusori bo igroq sukhan merond, dar hajvi bodiyanishinho az badguyi ibo namekard, ammo tashbehotu istiorahoi ravshan va mazmunhoi hikmatomezash az kamoli shoirii u darak medodand.

SHoiri digari eroni, ki zodai Huziston bud, Abunuvos Hasan ibni Honi meboshad, ki dar Basra ilmi adab, tib va nujumro omukhta, bad dar Kufa, Misr va Bagdod zist ikhtiyor mekunad. Devoni Abunuvos shomili 12 hazor bayt ast. Qasoidi khamriyavu tardiya va akhloqii in shoiri ozodfikr ishtihor yofta, gazalhoyi nozuk, marsiyaho, hajviyaho, munojot va mulammaoti u, ki dar onho kalimahoi arabi va vojahoi forsiro ba ham omekhta, ba sher husnu tobishi nav medod, etirof shudaand. Tasviri angur, sokhtani sharob va bazmhoi rindona dar ashori Abunuvos khele nishotbakhshand. Tasviri ashkhosi tarikhi, maishati eroni, tavsifi rasmu oyini milli, korbasti unsurhoi folklor va ananahoi zardushti dar ashori Abunuvos ziyod ba nazar merasand, ki hamai inro dar adabiyotshinosii arab «forsiyot» guftaand.  

SHoiri eroni Abulatohiya Ismoil ibni Qosim (vaf. 211 h. / 826 m.) dar madhu gazalu vaz mohir buda, Abon ibni Abdulhamid ibn- al-Aqaq, ki «Kalilavu Dimna», «Biluharu Buzosuf», «Sindbodnoma» va «Kitobi Mazdak»-ro, ki  qablan ba arabi gardonda shuda budand, ba rishtai nazmi arabi kashidaast, az eroninajodoni digari zamon bud.

Adibi digare, ki ruhi eroniro dar sheri arabi purquvvat namud, Ibn-ar-Rumi (836—896) ast, ki padarash yunoni budu modarash eroni. Vay hajv menavisht. Dar asarhoi nazmu nasri Ibni Rumi, khususan dar qasidaho, hajviyaho, marsiyaho va ashori ishqiash manihoi bikr farovon buda, nafrati u nisbat ba amironu vaziron va amaldoroni arab oshkoro bayon megardid. Vasfi tabiati zinda az behtarin nigorahoi Ibni Rumist.

Badi jarayoni  mustaqil giriftani adabiyoti forsii tojiki ba zaboni modari niz to muddate ba bad dar Eronu Hurosonu Movarounnahr adabiyoti arabizabon idoma namuda, shoirone paydo shudand, ki ham ba arabivu ham ba forsi sher meguftand. Az 415 shoire, ki  dar tazkirai Saolabi «YAtimat-ud-dahr» ovarda meshavad, 124 nafarashon dar zamoni hukumati  Somoniyon (875-999)  va  ibtidoi asri XI  masehi dar Hurosonu Movarounnahr zista, yo tanho ba arabi va yo ba du zabon — arabivu forsi ejod mekardaand.51

Hamchunin, dar qalamravi Oli Buvayh (Buya) va Oli Ziyor adabiyot asosan ba zaboni arabi ejod shuda, adabiyoti forsi dar on qalamravho badtar, az ibtidoi asri XI, ba vujud omad. Muosironi Rudaki — shoiron Murodi, Musabi, Matronii SHoshi, Husayn ibni Alii Marvrudi (vaf. 930), Abushakuri Balkhi (soli tav. 915), Abusulaymon al-Hattobi (931—996), Abubakr al-Horazmi (935—993), Abuali al-Iskofi (vaf. taqr. 955), Abulhasani Ogoji, ki dar ahdi Nuh ibni Mansur (977—997) mezist, va Abuhatimi Varroq shoironi zullisonayn buda, dar inkishofi sheri arab maqomi arjmande dorand.

Abulfathi Busti (971—1009)-ro makhsus qayd kardan zarur ast, ki ba sifati kotibi Sabuktegin va pisari u Sulton Mahmud (998—1030) khizmat mekard. U muallifi devonhoi forsiyu arabi buda, qasoidu hikmathoyash khele mashhurand. Dar ashori ishqii u vasfi mahbuba, ganimat donistani shodmonihoi zindagi va davat ba khush guzaronidani ruzgor maqomi shomikh dorad. Hajviyoti vay bar ziddi ashkhosi muayyan, az qabili hokimonu amaldoron, nigaronida shuda, muftkhuronu ribokhoronro mazammat menamoyad. Dar ikhvoniyoti u, ki  vasfi barodarist, rahmu shafqat, dustivu sadoqat, afvu puzish va pahluhoi digari akhloqi hamida tarannum meyobad. Abulfathi Busti baze sherhoi Daqiqi va dostoni «Ofarinnoma»-i Abushakuri Balkhiro az forsi ba arabi tarjuma ham karda budaast.

Ibn-al-Amid (300—360 h./912—970 m.), ki «Kitobi devon-ar-rasoil», «Kitob-al-khulqi va-l-khalq» va «Devon fi-l-lugat»-ash mashhur budand, ba sifati vaziri Oli Buvayh va pushtiboni farhangu adabi eroniyon etirof gardida, asarhoyash namunai behtarini nasri arabii zamonash ba shumor meraftaand va bisyor iborahoi u chun zarbulmasal dar bayni khalq pahn shudaast. Ashori ishqi va falsafii u kambortar buda, bo samimiyatu harorati tabii suruda shuda, bo sanoei balandi sheri zebu oro yoftaand. Mutanabbi dar haqqi u meguyad:

SHeri u toziyu afkorash bibin:

Falsafiyu jashnhoyash forsi!52

Pisari Ibn-al-Asir —Zulkifoyatayn dar sheru shoiri nisbat ba padarash istedodi qavitare dosht.  Vaziri digari Oli Buvayh – Sohib ibni Abbod  (933-995), ki dar ilmhoi  zabonshinosi  va   adabu  kalom  saromadi   asr bud,   lugati  7-jildai  zaboni  arabiro tartib  dod, ki «Al-Muhit» nom  dorad. «Rasoil»-i  u soli  1947 dar Misr chop shudand.

Vay oid ba ilmi aruz risolae navishta, majmuai ahodisi nabaviro murattab namuda bud.

Qasidai  buzurgtarin   shoiri     ahd  Mehyori    Daylami (vaf.  1037)   dar  sitoishi  davlati Sosoni,  ki dar on Idi  Navruz  vasf  megardad,  mashhuru  maruf  ast. Devoni ashori uro dar chahor jild guftaand. Vay avval keshi zardushti doshta, bad islomro paziruft. Badeuzzamoni  Hurosoni   (967—1007)   padidovarandai janri navi maqoma dar adabiyoti arab buda, dar «Maqomot»-u risolahoi khud sanati nigorishro ba haddi kamol    rasonda,    maqomanavisiro,    ki     Ibni    Durayd ogoz namuda bud, ravnaq doda, istifodai sajro dar nasr jori  kard. Maqoma janri  adabi  buda, hikoyatu latifa   va   novellahoi   khurd-khurdi   shadidnizoro   chunin unvon dodaand. Qahramoni maqomaho shakhsi ayyorpeshai donovu hozirjavobest, ki etirozi benavoyon va mazlumonro nisbat ba zulmu beadolati, jaholatu kohili va khudkhohivu tanparasti tajassum menamoyad.

Badeuzzamon aslan az Hirot buda, dar bisyor shahrhoi Eronu Osiyoi Miyona sayru sayohat namuda, nihoyat dar zodgohi khud olamro padrud guftaast. Muvofiqi akhboroti sarchashmahoi adabiyu tarikhi, u besh az 400 maqoma talif karda budaast, ki alhol 51-toi on boqist. Qahramononi asosii maqomahoi Badeuzzamon, ki bo sanathoi gunoguni lafziyu manavi, latifayu mutoyabahoi adabi, qitahoi sheri, tobishhoi gunoguni kalimaho, saju amsoli inho muzayyan gardonida shudaand, Iso ibni Hoshimi savdogar va Abulfathi Iskandarii darvesh meboshand. Onho beshtar az maqomi inson, sarvatu hokimiyat, margu zindagi, sharafu nomus va masalahoi digari umdai akhloqu tarbiya bahshoi falsafi payvasta, hamesha Abulfathi Iskandari golib meoyad. Dar adabiyoti arab sunnati Badeuzzamonro Hariri (1054—1122) va dar adabiyoti forsi Hamiduddini Balkhi (vaf. 1164) davom dodaand. «Guliston»-i Sadi niz to andozae dar hamin sheva talif shuda, in anana badan asrho davom kard.

Buzurgtarin donishmandi tojike, ki dar inkishofu ravnaqi adabiyoti arabizaboni khalqhoi eroninajod sahmi bosazo guzoshtaast, hamon Abuali ibni Sino (980— 987)-st, ki zoda va parvardai muhiti farhangii Bukhoro buda, dar Horazm, Ray, Gurgon, Isfahon, Hamadon va gayra zista, roje ba zabonu adabiyoti arab yak silsila asarho navishtaast, ki muhimtarinashon «Lison-ul-arab», «Fanni sher», qasidahoi ilmivu falsafi va risolahoi adabii marmuz, az qabili «Risolat-ut-tayr», «Hay ibni YAqzon» («Zindai pisari Bedor»), «Salomonu Absol», «Qissai YUsuf» va amsoli inhost, ki aksar nazari falsafii mutafakkirro dar borai inkishofi jismonivu manavii inson ifoda menamoyand.

Sunnati talifi asarhoi badei ba zaboni arabi dar qalamravi eroniho to khudi asri XV idoma dosht. Az osori adiboni minbada qasidahoi arabii Sadii SHerozi (1184—1292) jolibi tavajjuh buda, qasidai u roje ba istiloi Bagdod az tarafi Haloku, zavoli khilofati Bani Abbos va marsiyai Al-Mutasam-billoh az behtarin ashori arabist. «Latoyif»-i arabizaboni Ubaydi Zokoni (asri XIV) mashhur budaand. Umuman, adabiyoti arabizaboni eroninajodon yak bakhshi durakhshoni kulli adabiyoti arab ast.

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