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ABUALI IBNI SINO

YAke az  nobigahoi jahonii hamai davru zamonho va khalqu makonho olimi mutabahhiri tojik Abuali ibni Sinost38, ki dar okhiri asri X – avvali asri XI zista, dar sohahoi nihoyat gunoguni ilm, khususan dar inkishofi falsafa va tibbi dunyo sahmi bosazoe guzoshtaast. Vay aslan parvardai muhiti farhangii Somoniyon buda, badi posh khurdani davlati muqtadiri Somoniyon, qismati beshtari umrash dar girdobi hodisahoi mudhishi nimai avvali asri IX sipari gardidaast.

Ibni Sino gohe chun tabibu faylasuf, bazan ba sifati faqehu vazir, hatto zamone chun mahbusu zindoni hayot ba sar burda, chun nadimi khosi podshohonu hokimon niz ruz guzaronidaast. Ammo lahzae az omuzish gaflat navarzida, dame ham az pajuhish forig nabudaast. Muhiti farhangii zamoni u az on jihat mumtoz ast, ki dar vatani Abuali ibni Sino — Movarounnahru Hurosonu Eron dar osmoni ilmu adab zumrai sitorahoe medurakhshidand, ki dar zoti khud hamto nadoshtand. Ofarandai «Jome-us-saheh» Ismoili Bukhoroi (810—870), tabibu faylasufi nomi Zakariyoi Rozi (864— 932), Ustod Rudaki  (858—941), Muallimi Soni Abunasri Forobi (873—960), riyozidonu sipehrshinos Abumuhammadi Hujandi (vaf. 1000), ofarandai «SHohnoma»-i namiranda Hakim Abulqosimi Firdavsi (934—1020), olimi bemonand Aburayhoni Beruni (973—1048) va, nihoyat, Hakim Umari Hayyom (1048—1131) az on qabiland. Dar in miyon Abuali ibni Sino az sazovortarin ashkhos ast.

Baraksi bisyor buzurgoni guzashta, ki az zindaginomai onho kamtar chize daqiqu ravshan ast, aksari sanahoi hayoti Abuali ibni Sino aniq malumand. U tafsiloti sarguzashti kheshro ba shogirdi vafodorash Abuubaydi Faqehi Juzjoni imlo karda, voqiavu hodisahoi 25 soli akhiri umri ustodashro khudi Abuubayd, ki hamesha hamrohi ustod va shohidi bevositai rukhdodho bud, navishtaast. In imlo bo nomi «Risolai sarguzasht» malum buda, dar asli arabi va tarjumaho ba zabonhoi gunogun chandin bor ba tab rasidaast. Muvofiqi hamin hujjat, padari Abuali, ki  Abdulloh ibni Hasan ibni Ali ibni Sino nom dosht, aslan az ahli Balkh bud. Balkh, ki chun ummulbilod, yane modari shahrho, shuhratyor gardida bud, chun markazi viloyati Huroson taalluq ba Somoniyon dosht. Padari Abuali, ki payravi mazhabi ismoiliya bud, dar zamoni saltanati amiri Somoni Nuh ibni Mansur (976—997) ba Bukhoro omad. Nuh uro ba qariyai Hurmesan (Rometani imruza)-i mavzei Afshanai kanori Bukhoro firistod. Abdullohi Balkhi dar Hurmesan ba mamuriyati mulki shugl varzida, dar devon kor mekard va andoz gun medosht. Abdulloh dar Afshana nom dehe dar nazdikii Hurmesan, ki aknun ba Laglaka tabdili nom kardaast, khonayu joy sokhta, bo Sitorabonu nom dukhtari dehqone khonador shud. Boshandagoni deha hanuz ba sugdi guftugu mekardand.

Afshana shahristone bud, ki bozor, hisor, madrasa va masjidi jome dosht, ki ba vusati on guvoh ast. 18 avgusti soli 980 dar hamin oila pisare ba dunyo omad, ki uro Husayn nom guzoshtand Badi panj sol barodari u Mahmud tavallud shud. Dar in bora khudi Abuali Sino meguyad: «Padaram marde az ahli Balkh buda, dar ruzgori Nuh ibni Mansur az on jo ba Bukhoro omad va hangomi sukunat dar yake az dehahoi Bukhoro, ki onro Hurmesan guyand va az dehahoi buzurgi on jost, ba tasarruf va pesh burdani korhoi devon mashgul bud. Dar nazdikii on (Hurmesan – A.A.) dehest, ki onro Afshana guyand. Padaram az hamin deha modaramro ba zani girifta, dar on jo vatandor shud. Man, sipas barodaram dar on jo az u zoda shudem».39

Nomi purrai Abuali ibni Sino chunin ast: Abuali Husayn ibni Abdulloh ibni Hasan ibni Ali ibni Sino. Badho u ba tarzi kutohi Abuali ibni Sino va yo Ibni Sino maruf gardida, dar zaboni mardum chun Abuali va beshtar Buali mashhur ast. Buali ohangi navozish doshta, az muhabbati khalq ba farzandi nobigai khud darak medihad. Abuali ibni Sino dar  Urupo va jahon chun Avitsenna malumu mashhur ast.

Soli  985, vaqte ki Abuali ibni Sino ba panj medaromad, oilai onho az Hurmesan ba Bukhoro kuchid. Ba gufti Jayhoni, «Bukhoro shahrest dar zamini homun, binohoi eshon az chub, girdogirdi on shahr kushkho, bustonho, mahallatho va dehho ba ham payvasta, chunon chi darozii on duvozdah farsang boshad dar duvozdah farsang. Devore ba qasabai on kashida va on chi yod kardam, chunonchi dar miyon hej kharobi va biyobone nest» (iqtibos az navishtahoi   Ahror Mukhtorov).

Abdulloh, ki az odamoni fozilu marifatdust bud, Husaynro ba maktab mond. Vay az 5-solagi to 10-solagi dar maktab khonda, khatu savod barovard, sarfu nahvi arabiro omukht, ilmhoi adabiro azkhud kard. Ba ilmhoi adab, yane adabiyot, bar zammi sarfu nahv, khattoti, maoni, qiroat, aruz, qofiya, lugat, imlo, uslubshinosi va amsoli inho dokhil meshudand. Nihoyat, Husayn Quronro omukhtavu  hifz namud, ki dar in bora khud mefarmoyad: «CHun ba dahsolagi rasidam, Quronu bisyore az ilmi adabro az bar kardam, ba tavre ki in az man shigiftovar bud.»40 Digar Abuali laqabi «SHaykh» girift, zero har kasro, ki Quronro azyod mekard, sarfi nazar az sinnu solash, «SHaykh» meguftand.

Sipas Abdulloh pisari khud Husaynro az maktabi ibtidoyi girifta, nazdi muallimoni khususi guzosht, ki asoshoi ilmro ba u omuzondand. Pisarcha az jihati jismoni benuqs, dar husnu khulq zebo buda, zehni girovu istedodi balande dosht. Az in omuzgoron ba hayrat memondand. Dar in ovon Husaynro padarash nazdi Abdullohi Massoh, ki tanobchi va zaminchenkun bud, shogird guzosht. Abdullohi Massoh az donishmandoni sohai hisobu handasa buda, dar Bukhoro baqqoli mekardu  sabzavot mefurukht. Abuali az Abdullohi Massoh dar andak vaqt hisobu handasaro omukhta, makhsusan dar hisobi hind mohir shud. Hamon vaqtho Abuali dar peshi Ismoili Zohir ba omukhtani tafsiri Quron, hadisi paygambar va fiqh mepardozad. In shugli u du sol davom kard. Hamin tariq, Ibni Sino to dahsolagi khattu savod, sarfu nahv, ilmhoi adabiyot, hisob, riyoziyot, handasa va Quronro amiq omukhta, to duvozdahsolagi dar tafsir, hadis va fiqh mahorat paydo namud. Bo hamin, guftan mumkin ast, ki  tahsili miyonai Abuali ba okhir rasid. U hamesha behtarini tolibilmon hisob yofta, shevai bahs, odobi muzokira, tarzhoi etiroz ba harif va husni muhovararo nagz omukhta bud. Istiqloli fikr, vusati andesha va bo dalel sukhan rondan khosi navjavoni dar rohi ilm peshrav bud. Dar masalahoi maslaku mafkura istiqloli khudro hatto az padari khesh ham nigoh medosht. U khabar medihad: «Padaram az kasone bud, ki davati doii misriyonro pazirufta budu az jumlai ismoiliyon ba shumor meraft. Uvu barodaram zikri nafsu aqlro az eshon ba vajhe, ki meguftandu medonistand, shunida budand. Goho har du miyoni khud muzokira mekardandu man on chiro, ki meguftand, meshunidamu darmeyoftam. Dar ibtido maro ham ba on aqida davat mekardandu zikri falsafa, handasa va hisobi hind bar zabonashon meraft, ammo nafsi man namepaziruft».41

Malum meshavad,   ki  barodaru padari Abuali bar khilofi u, ki payravi mazhabi sunnatu jamoat bud, ba mazhabi   ismoili   garavida,   az   talimoti   ikhvonussafo,  yane barodaroni pok, ki risolahoi   onho dar miyonai asri  X   (solhoi  961-962)     talif  gardida    budand,bahsho mekardand.

 YAqinan, Abuali ibni Sino az tarikh, talimoti Zartusht, keshi Moni, sarguzashti Oli Barmak, voqeahoi khonadoni Somoni, osori Forobiyu Balami, ashori Rudakiyu hamasronash va ejodiyoti Firdavsi barin adibon ogoh bud.

Badi faro giriftani malumoti miyona Abuali ibni Sino az payi on shud, ki malumoti khudro takmil dihad. Vay du bor omuzgori falsafaro ivaz kard. On solho ba Bukhoro, ki poytakhti Somoniyon bud, az shahrhoi digari mamlakat, hatto az kishvarhoi gunoguni olam, olimonu donishmandoni ziyode meomadand. Dar bayni onho muballigoni ismoiliyu qarmati va josuson niz budand. Dar in  miyon ba  Bukhoro Abuabdullohi  Notili omad, ki  tib,  mantiq,  hikmat  va  falsafaro  khub medonist.  Sohibi «Vujud» va «Ilmi iksir» nom asarho buda, mazhabi ismoili dosht. Padari Abuali, ki bo u hammazhab bud, Notiliro dar khonai khud joy doda, Abualiro ba vay shogird mond. Abuali    ibni Sino    naql mekunad: «Sipas Abuabdullohi Notili ba Bukhoro omadu u muddaii falsafa bud. Padaram vayro ba umedi on ki az u sabaq bigiram, dar havliyamon joy dod… Ba khondani kitobi «Isoguji» nazdi Notili ogoz kardam. CHun tarifi  «jins»-ro  ba  man  guft:  «jins lafzest,  ki  bar chizhoi bisyoru gunogunnav dalolat mekunad   va dar javobi «on chist?» gufta meshavad», tahqiqi onro ba joe rasonidam,  ki  vay  monandashro nashunida  bud.  Az  man bisyor dar  shigift shuda, padaramro takid kard, ki maro ba juz ilm ba kore mashgul nadorad. Hamin tariq, chizhoi zohiri mantiqro nazdi u khondam, vale az nozukihoi on uro khabare nabud. Pas mustaqilona    ba khondani  kitobho va mutoliai sharhho shuru karda, dar mantiq tavono shudam. Kitobi Uqlidusro42 ham hamin tariq khondam.  Az ogozi  on  panj yo shash shaklro peshi u khonda, sipas halli baqiyai kitobro khud ba uhda giriftam. Sipas ba «Al-Majasti»43 guzashtam. CHun az muqaddamoti on forig shuda, ba shaklhoi handasi rasidam, Notili ba man guft: «Hudat ba khondanu halli onho bipardoz va sipas chizi khondaatro az peshi man bigzaron, to durustu nodirusti onro oshkor sozam».

On mard ba in kitob ustuvor nabud, khud ba halli on shuru kardam. CHandin shaklhoi dushvore budand, ki to ba u nishon dodavu namefahmondam, onhoro namedonist».44 Notili ajzu notavonii khudro dar nazdi shogirdi favquloddai khud his karda, matlabro ba padari Abuali izhor namuda, piruzii shogirdi muqtadiri khudro khosta, az manzili onho baromada raft. Ba Gurganj—poytakhti Horazm, ki onro aknun Urganj meguyand, raft.

Abuali to 15-solagi ilmhoi tabiiyot, ilohiyot, falsafa, hikmati ilohi, nujum, musiqii nazari va amaliro mustaqilona omukhta, dar hamai onho komil gardid. Nihoyat, dar 16-solagi ba omukhtani ilmi tib mashgul shud.

Ba Abuali ilmi tibro Abumansur Hasani Qamarii Bukhoroyi, ki  tabibi darbori Nuh ibni Mansur bud, talim medod. Abuali ibni Sino avval faro giriftani ilmi tibro az 12-solagi shuru karda bud. Vale on vaqt bo maslihati Abusahli Masehi ba davom dodani on shugl navarzid. Nihoyat, soli 986 ba in ilm az nav ru ovard. Allakay kitobhoi olimoni buzurgi tibbi YUnoni Qadim — padari tibbi jahoni Hippokrat (460—370 to melod), ki dar SHarqi musulmoni chun Buqrot mashhur ast, va Galen (181—210), ki dar olami islom bo nomi Jolinus shuhrat dorad, ba zaboni arabi bargardon shuda budand. Ibni Sino onhoro mustaqilona, bo rohi khudomuzi, mutolaa mekard. Baroi u faro giriftani ilmi tib chandon dushvor nabud. Hudi Ibni Sino ba yod meorad: «Sipas ba ilmi tib ragbat kardam va ba khondani kitobhoi dar on tasnifshuda ru ovaram. Ilmi tib az ilmhoi dushvor nest. Binobar in, dar andak muddat dar on ba darajae zabardast shudam, ki donishmandoni tib ilmi tibro nazdi man ba khondan ogoz kardand va parastorii bemoronro ba uhda giriftam. Darhoi muolija, ki az tajriba ba dast omadaast, chunon kushoda meshudand, ki berun az vasf ast» (hamon jo). Hamin tariq, Abuali ibni Sino dar 16- solagi chun tabibi hoziq dar tamomi Bukhoro shinokhta shud. Hamchunin, ba takmili donishi khud dar sohai ilmi fiqh, mantiq, falsafa, tabiatshinosi, riyoziyot va ilmi ilohi bargashta, dar muddati yakunim soli digar in donishhoro ham mukammal namud.

Abuali Sino shakhsi nihoyat puyo, jiddi va mehnatdust bud. Aqli rasovu qobiliyati baland boisi peshrafti ilmi va manavii u meshudand. Kushish, sabru toqat va jahdu jadal niz sabab shudand, ki piruzivu komyobihoi manavii u tamin gardand. Hangomi tahsili ilm, meguyad Abuali ibni Sino, «yagon shab purra nakhuftaam va ruzona ba juz omukhtani ilm ba kore mashgul nashudaam. Bar man hama chiz oshkor gardid… SHab ba khonaam bargashta sham peshi khud menihodam va ba khondanu navishtan mepardokhtam… Dere naguzashta, man dar hamai ilmho tavono shudam va ba andozai qudrati insoni az onho ogohi yoftam. Har chi ki dar on hangom omukhtam, hamon ast, ki imruz medonam va to imruz bar on chize naafzudaast».45

Bore, solhoi 994 —995, Abuali ibni Sino kitobi hakimi YUnoni Qadim Arastu (384—322 to melod) «Mo bad-ut-tabiat» —«Metafizika», yane «On chi favqi tabiat ast»-ro, ki oid ba ilohiyot ast, mekhond, ammo garazi muallif hamon bar u pushida memond. Onro chihil bor khondu azyod kard. Bo vujudi in, az maqsadi muallif pay naburd. Navmed shuda guft: «In kitobest, ki ba hech roh fahmida nameshavad». Nihoyat, ruze, tasodufan, az bozor risolai Abunasri Forobiro kharida mekhonad. Nuktahoi boriku toriki asari Arastu baroyash kashf megardad. Hudi Ibni Sino hikoyat mekunad: «Ruze az ruzho, hangomi asr, dar miyoni sahhofon hozir budam, ki dallole dar dast mujallade nido mekard. Vay onro ba man namudu man ba sakhti rad kardam, zero bovari doshtam, ki dar in ilm (yane «mo bad-ut-tabiat»—A. A.) sude nest. On goh u ba man guft: «Inro az man bikhar! Ba tu arzon mefurusham, ba se dirham, sohibash ba bahoi on muhtoj ast». Man onro kharida didam, ki kitobi Abunasri Forobi «Fi agrozi kitobi «Mo bad-ut-tabiat» budaast. Pas ba khona bargashta, onro boshitob khondam va darhol garazhoi on kitob, ki  dar dili man mahfuz bud, bar man kushoda shudand. Az on shod shudamu ruzi digar baroi siposguzori az Hudoy ba tihidaston chizi bisyore sadaqa kardam».

Ba hamin tariq, to 18-solagi Abuali ibni Sino tamomi donishhoi rasmi va gayrirasmii zamoni khudro faro girifta, chun peshsafi buzurgtarin olimoni suturgi davr etirof gardid. SHoyad dar hamin vaqt bo irodai mardum ba u unvonhoi SHaykhurrais, yane, ba iborai Sadriddin Ayni, «Sarolim» va «Hujjat-ul-haq—Hujjati haq» doda shuda boshad, ki dar tuli hazor soli akhir in unvonho bo nomi Abuali ibni Sino payvasta boqist.

SHaykhurrais khud etirof mekunad: «CHun ba hajdahsolagi rasidam, az omukhtani hamai in ilmho forig shudam. On ruz dar ilm beshtar hifzkunanda budam, imruz pukhtatar shudam, vagarna ilm yak khel buda, az on dar man chize digargun nashudaast». Ibni Sino haq dosht, ki on vaqt biguyad:

Az qari gili siyoh to avji Zuhal

Kardam hama mushkiloti getiro hal.

Berun jastam zi qaydi har makru hiyal,

Har band kushoda shud, magar bandi ajal!

Olimi zabardasttarini asr, faylasufi tavono va pizishqi dono Abuali ibni Sino besh az hama ba tabobati bemoron shugl mevarzid.

Soli 996 podshohi vaqt Nuh ibni Mansurro bemorie pesh omad, ki tabibon dar iloji on ojiz mondand. Azbaski nomi Abuali ibni Sino dar bayni tabibon bo donishi farokh va mahorati voloi pizishki mashhur gashta bud, uro baroi muolijai amir davat namudand. Abuali amirro hunarmandona tabobat kard. Az muolijai u amir shifo yoft. In voqia obruyi Ibni Sinoro afzud. Ba u vazifae az korhoi darbori supurdand. Podshoh khost, ki dar podoshi sihhat yoftani khud ba tabibi javon mukofote arzanda bidihad. Az khudi navjavoni shifokor mepursand. Abuali az amir khohish menamoyad, ki ba u tanho ijozat dihad, ki dar kitobkhonai amiri ruze chand ba mutolia mashgul shavad. Hohishi u pazirufta shud. Hursandii u haddu kanor nadosht. Abuali tamomi ruzhoro dar kitobkhona guzaronda, kitob mekhond. Dar on jo ba kitobhoe rubaru gardid, ki na peshtaru na badan dida bud, chunon ki khudash shahodat medihad: «Voridi saroe shudam, ki  khonahoi bisyor doshta, dar har khonae sanduqhoi kitob boloi ham chida shuda budand. Dar yak khona kitobhoi ilmhoi arabi va sher, dar digarash kitobhoi fiqh va, hamin tavr, dar har khonae kitobhoi yak ilme joy dosht. Sipas, fehristi kitobhoi peshiniyonro mutolia namuda, on chiro, ki bad-on niyoz doshtam, khostam. Kitobhoero didam, ki bisyor kason hatto nomi onhoro nashunidaand va man ham onhoro na peshu na badi in didaam. On kitobhoro khonda, sudho burdam va andozai donishi har mardero shinokhtam».46 Beshubha, mutoliai chun in kitobho donishi Ibni Sinoro boz ham takomul doda, khudi u ba navishtani asarho mustaqilona shuru kard. Az hamon vaqt sar karda asarhoyashro ham ba arabi va ham ba tojiki menavisht. YAke az asarhoi davroni javonii u «Zafarnoma» ast.

«Zafarnoma» dar asl ba zaboni pahlavi navishta shuda47, ba qavle, Ibni Sino in pandnomaro baroi yake az amironi Somoni — Nuh ibni Mansur va yo Mansuri Duvum (997—999) az pahlavi ba forsii darii tojiki gardonda budaast. In asar, ki dar shakli savolu javob talif yoftaast, az du bakhsh iborat meboshad. Bakhshi avval pursishhoi vaziri Anushervoni Odil (579—581) va javobhoi ustodi vaziri u Buzurgmehri Bakhtakonro faro megirad, ki reshai pahlavi dorad, yane, manbai onho, biduni shakku shubha, andarzhoi pahlavist. Ammo bakhshi duvum, ki kutohtar az qismi avval ast, az pursishhoi umumi va posukhhoi donishmandi rivoyati Luqmoni Hakim iborat ast, ki dar Quron nom burda meshavad. Dar har du mavrid ham savolu javobho ravshanu fahmo va jumlaho soddavu faseh buda, sabki andarzhoi zamoni sosoni nigoh doshta meshavad. Anushervon Buzurgmehrro nazdi khud khonda, talab mekunad: «Mekhoham sukhane chand mufid dar lafzi andaku maonii bisyor jam sozi, chunon ki dar dunyovu uqbo sudmand boshad». Buzurgmehr yak sol muhlat khosta, pandu hikmathoero gird ovard, ki masoili dogi akhloqro bayon mekardand. Onro «Zafarnoma» nom guzoshta, ba Anushervon taqdim namud. Majmua ba Anushervon khush omad. Farmud, ki in kalamot ba obi zar navishtand va doim bo khud medosht va onro gashtavu bargashta mekhond».

Adibi eroni Kozimi Rajabi «Zafarnoma»-ro soli 1938 tahti unvoni «Nomai piruzi» va soli 1954 zeri nomi «Piruzinoma» takroran dar Tehron chop kard. In asar chandin bor dar Tojikiston niz ba tab rasidaast.

Dar «Zafarnoma» ba vositai savolho masalahoe pesh guzoshta meshavand, ki javobhoi hikmatomezu falsafiro taqozo mekunand. Javobho jambastu natija meboshand va chun andarzhoi mahz sado medihand. Hadafi «Zafarnoma» barin asarho parvardani insoni az jihati jismoni solim, az lihozi manaviyot gani, khushsukhan, boadab va zebost, ki onro ba haysi Insoni Komil paziruftan mumkin ast. On odobi shoistaro targib va akhloqi razilaro mahkum menamoyad. Masalan:

«Guftam: -Az ki eman bosham? Guft: -Az duste, ki hosid naboshad. Guftam: -CHi chiz ast, ki bihishtro sazovor boshad? Guft: -Ilm omukhtanu ba javoni ba kori haq mashgul budan. Guftam: -Kadom ayb ast, ki nazdiki mardum mutabar namoyad? Guft: -Hunari khud guftan. Guftam: -CHun dusti noshoyist padid oyad, chi guna az vay biboyad burid? Guft: -Ba se chiz: ba ziyoratash kam raftan, az holash napursidan va az vay hojat nakhostan. Guftam: -Korho ba kushish buvad yo ba qazo? Guft: -Kushish qazoro sabab ast. Guftam: -Az javonon chi behtaru az piron chi nekutar? Guft: -Az javonon sharmu daleri va az piron donishu ohistagi…Guftam: -Az farmonho kadom farmonro khor naboyad dosht? Guft: -Se: avval farmoni Hudoi azza va jalla; duvum-farmoni oqilon; savum-farmoni padaru modar… Guftam: Agar ilm omuzam, chi yobam? Guft: Agar khurd boshi, buzurgu nomdor gardi; agar muflis boshi, tavongar gardi va agar maruf boshi, maruftar gardi… Az Luqmoni Hakim pursidand, ki donotar kist? Guft: -On ki nemati dunyo bar nemati uqbo naguzinad… Guftand: -Kadom perohan ast, ki hargiz kuhna nagardad? Guft: -Nomi nek… Guftand: -Kadom balandist, ki az hamai pastiho pasttar ast? Guft: -Kibr».

Bo in hama, «Zafarnoma» ba arzishi balandi tarbiyavi va akhloqi molik ast.

Ba Abuali ibni Sino dar devoni davlati ham vazifa doda budand. U bo kamoli shavq adoi khizmat mekard. Ammo chunin ruzhoi guvoro der davom nakardand. Soli 997 Nuh ibni Mansur az olam darguzasht. Kuchmanchiyon az chahor taraf ba Davlati Somoniyon payopay hujum ovardan giriftand. Dar janubi mamlakat Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi (998—1030) khudro podshohi mustakil elon karda, Gazninro poytakhti davlat qaror dod. SHohi qarakhoni Elikkhoni Nasr az Uzgand lashkar kashida, Bukhororo gasb namud. Davlati Somoniyon az ham posh khurda, soli 999 hukmronii Somoniyon (875—999) rasman ba okhir rasid. Kitobkhonai Somoniyon suzonda shud. Bar boloi hamai in, dushmanonu hosidoni Abuali ibni Sino tuhmatho basta, uro hatto kofiru bedin va majusi mekhondand. Abuali ibni Sino ba onho dar javob meguft:

Kufri chu mane gazofu oson nabuvad,

Mahkamtar az imoni man imon nabuvad!

Dar dahr chun man yakevu on ham kofir?!

Pas, dar hama dahr yak musulmon nabuvad!

Soli 1002 Abuali ibni Sino, ki 22-sola bud, az padar mahrum gasht. Dasisahoi atrofi u niz avj giriftand. Baroi khalosi az in girdobi balo va daryofti najot az azobhoi ruhi Ibni Sino az Bukhoro gurekht: hamrohi barodarash ba korvoni savdogaron payvasta, soli 1005 rohi Horazmro pesh girift.

CHaro Ibni Sino mahz safari Horazmro ikhtiyor kard? Avvalan, Horazm az voqeahoi mudhishi siyosii Movarounnahru Huroson dar kanor bud. Duvum, Abuali dar borai donishparvar va nisbat ba ahli ilmu donish gamkhor budani amiri on jo Ali ibni Mahmud bisyor hikoyat shunida bud.

Dar voqe, sunnathoi peshini eroni dar Horazm pos doshta meshudand, ilmu adabiyot va madaniyat dar taraqqi bud, bahshoi jiddii ilmi barpo meshud, ki dar onho payravoni mazhabhoi gunogun va, hatto, dinhoi mukhtalif shirkat mevarzidand, ki az ustuvor budani aqidahoi shuubiya dar on jo guvohi medod. Savum, hanuz solhoi 998—999 Abuali ibni Sino bo Aburayhoni Beruni irtiboti maktubi doshta, bo vujudi hanuz 18-sola budan, ba savolhoi ilmii in olimi varzidai 26-sola doir ba asarhoi Arastu, oid ba falak va baze hodisahoi fizikiyu tabiatshinosi javobho navishta, bo dalelho shubhahoi uro raf menamud. Inak, az in nomaho duto dar dast ast, ki yake savolu javobi dah masala va digare pursishu posukhi shonzdah nuktaro faro megirad. Hamai in sabab shud, ki Ibni Sino ba Horazm ravad.

U dar libosi faqehi ba Horazm vorid shud.

Horazmiyon ba zaboni khorazmi guftuguy mekardand, ki yake az shokhahoi zabonhoi eroni bud. Zaboni ilm dar on jo ham arabi bud. Majlishoi bazmu sherkhoni forsii   dari bud. On jo ilmu farhang mutadil inkishof meyoft. Dar Horazm Abuali ibni Sino ba halqai olimoni mashhur — Aburayhoni Beruni, Abusahli Masehi, Abunosiri Arroq, Abulkhayri Hammor, Abdusamad ibni Hakim va digaron, ki dar darbori Ali ibni Mamun khizmat mekardand, payvast. Vaziri Horazmshoh — Abulhasani Sahli, ki adib, shoir va dustdori ilm bud, Ibni Sinoro bo ehtirom peshvoz girifta, ba qabuli podshoh burd. Ba u khona dodu mohonae muqarrar kard, ki kofi bud. Ba ivazi nekihoi Sahli Abuali ibni Sino baroi uvu ahli khonadonash roje ba kimiyo, tib, nujum va ilmhoi digar risolaho navisht. Hamchunin, dar Horazm ba tabobati bemoron mashgul meshud, dar bahshoi ilmi shirkat mevarzid.

Zindagii Ibni Sino dar Horazm taqriban 5 sol (1005—1010) davom kard. Badan, Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi az Horazmshoh talab kard, ki  olimoni Horazm baroi kor ba darbori u-ba Gaznin firistoda shavand. In darkhostro aksar paziruftand. Abuali ibni Sino va ustodash Abusahli Masehi, ki isavimazhab bud, soli 1011 az bimi Sulton Mahmud bo rohi biyobon ba tarafi Eron guzashtand. Dar biyobon, dar asari girdbodi sakht, Masehi, ki piramardi qarib sadsola bud, ba azobu tashnagi tob naovarda, jon ba Jonofarin supurd. Abuali beholu bemador va yakkayu tanho ba Niso rasid. Sipas az on jo ba Bovard, az on jo ba Tus, az on jo ba SHakkon, az on jo ba Samangon, az on jo ba Bachochor va az on jo ba Jurjon raft. Maqsadi alloma didani amiri Mozandaronu Tabariston Qobus ibni Vushmgir (976—1012) bud, ki marde fozilu adib bud. Vade Qobus chun hokim berahmu zolim budaast. Binobar hamin, mardum bar ziddi istibdodi u isyon bardoshta, az sari takht durash kardand. Ba joyi u pisarash Manuchehr ba takht nishast. Qobus dar zindon murd. Ibni Sino uro nadida, muddate ba tabobati bemoron mashgul shudu sipas ba Dehiston raft. Vale dar on jo sakht bemor shuda, ba Jurjon bargasht. SHogirdi vafodorash Abuubaydi Jurjoni soli 1012 dar hamin joy bo Abuali ibni Sino payvast.

Hamin guna sarsoniho vomedorand, ki Buali dar hasbi holi khud ba arabi qasidae guyad, ki in bayt az on jost:

Lammo azimtu fa laysani misrun vasei,

Lammo galla samani adimtu -l – mushtari*.

YAne, chu man kalon shudam, shahr natavonist faro bigiradam, chun arzishi man afzud, talabgor nopaydo shud.

Pisari Qobus ikhtiyoran khutbavu sikkaro ba nomi Sulton Mahmud guzaronda, rasman khudro hokimi tobei u gardond. Ibni Sino chand vaqti digar khudro oshkor nakarda, ba tabobatu korhoi ilmi davom dod. Bad, az khavfi ba dasti Sulton Mahmud aftodan, az on jo ba Ray raft. ____________________________________

* Buzurgi yoftam, ammo ba shahre nest miqdoram,

 Garon andar baho gashtam, valekin bekharidoram.

                                                          Tarjumai Asrori Somoni.

Vaqte khosti Sulton Mahmudro napazirufta, az Horazm ba Tabariston gurekht, bo farmoni Sulton Mahmud hunarvari nomi Abunasri Arroq, ki allomaro nagz medonist, surati Abualiro kashid. Az on jo chihil nuskha bardoshta, ba hokimoni gunogun firistodand, to uro yofta, ba huzuri Mahmud firistand.

Dar nazdikii Nishopur Abuali ibni Sino dar SHakkon chandin bor bo sufi va orifi mashhur SHaykh Abusaidi Abulkhayr (968—1049) muloqot orost. Manbahoi tarikhi malumot medihand, ki «yak ruz SHaykhi mo Abusaid… dar Nishopur majlis medosht… Hoja Abuali Sino… az dari khonaqohi SHaykh daromad … Eshon, har du, pesh az on yakdigarro nadida budand, agarchi miyoni eshon mukotibat bud. CHun Buali az dar daromad, SHaykhi mo ruy ba vay kardu guft: «Hikmatdone omad».

Hoja Buali daromadu binishast. SHaykh ba sari sukhan shudu majlis tamom kardu az takht furu omadu dar khona shudu Hoja Buali bo SHaykh dar khona shudu dari khona faroz kardandu se shabonaruz bo yakditar budand ba khilvatu sukhan meguftand, ki kas nadonistavu hech kas niz ba nazdiki eshon darnayomad, magar kase, ki ijozat dodandu juz ba namozhoi jamoat berun nayomadand.

Bad az se shabonaruz Hoja Buali biraft. SHogirdon az Hoja Buali pursidand, ki shaykhro chi guna yofti? Guft: «Har chi man medonam, u mebinad». Va mutasavvifayu muridoni SHaykh chun ba nazdiki SHaykh daromadand, az u savol kardand, ki ay SHaykh, Bualiro chun yofti? Guft: «Har chi mo mebinem, u medonad».

Solhoi 1012—1014 Abuali ibni Sino dar shahrhoi gunoguni   Eron—Jurjonu  Hamadon,   Nishopuru  Isfahon va gayraho zista, nihoyat dar Ray qaror girift. Mardum Abuali ibni   Sinoro az   ruyi tabobatu talifotash shinokhtand. Dar in hangom Majduddavla, ki az sababi khurdsoli ba nom hokimi Ray bud, ba kasalii ruhii sar, ki  yak navi khavosu molikhuliyost, giriftor shud. Kishvarro az nomi in kudaki hokim modarash idora mekard, ki Zubayda nom doshtu Ummulmulk, yane modari mamlakat laqab. Vale uro, mamulan Sayyida, yane sohiba va khonum, meguftand. U besh az si sol hukm rond.

Bo suporishi Sayyida Ibni Sino Majduddavlaro tabobat karda, az changi bemorii mudhish najotash dod. Badi vafoti Sayyida Mahmudi Gaznavi Rayro zabt kard. Abuali ibni Sino soli 1015 gurekhta, Qazvin raft. Muddate on jo istiqomat karda, sipas khudro ba Hamadon rasond. Hokimi in jo pisari digari Sayida — SHamsuddavla giriftori dardi qulinj bud. Buali uro ham muolija karda, nadimash shud. SHamsuddavla barobari shifo yoftan ba Kirmonshoh lashkar kashid. Buali hamsafari u bud. Vale dar  in jang az kurdho shikast khurda, ba Hamadon bargasht. Bad, soli 1019, SHamsuddavla vazorati khudro ba SHaykhurrais supurd. Ibni Sino korhoi mamlakatro az ruyi aqlu adl ba roh andokht, ki ba ahli darbor maqbul naaftod. Lashkariyonn turk ba muqobili Abuali ibni Sino shurish barpo kardand. Ba qavli Abuubaydi Juzjoni, «girdi khonaashro giriftand, uro ba habs burda, chizu choraashro gorat kardand; har chi dosht, hamaro burdandu az amir qatli uro khostgor shudand. Vale amir az qatli vay khuddori karda, baroi rizoyi onho bo barkanor kardani u az korhoi davlati iktifo kard».

SHaykhurrais dar saroi Abusaidi Dakhluk pinhon shuda, ba korhoi ilmi mashgul gardid. Dar in miyon SHamsuddavla balvogaronro nestu nobud kardu dardi qulinjash az nav avj girift. Vay SHaykhurraisro yofta, khudro ba vay muolija kunond. Kori vazorat soli 1020 dubora ba Ibni Sino bargardonda shud.

Abuali ibni Sino dar in hangom, yane soli 1020 talifi kitobi avvali «Al-qonun»-ro, ki soli 1010 sar karda bud, ba poyon rasonda, talifi «SHifo»-ro ogoz namud va soli 1032 tamomash kard. Gayr az in, Abuali ba shogirdonash az ruyi kitobhoi khud dars meguft. Tarzi darsdihii u niz ajib bud: ruzho ba korhoi davlati mashgul meshudu shabho nazdi u yake «SHifo» mekhond, digare «Qonun», savumin az «Ishoratu tanbehot» sabaq megirift, chahorumi musiqi meomukht va gayra. Bad romishgaron hozir meshudand, majlisi sharob orosta megardid. Sipas hama khona ba khona meraftand.

Dar in miyon SHamsuddavla, soli 1021, vafot kardu valiahdi u Samouddavla ba SHaykhurrais peshnihod namud, ki vazoratro bipazirad. Ammo javobi rad shunid.

Soli 1023, ba tuhmati barkhe dushmanoni SHaykhurrais, yake az amironu hokimi navjulusi Hamadon Abuali ibni Sinoro dar qalai Fardajon zindoni kardand. In qala 15 farsakh (taqriban 60 km) durtar az Hamadon, dar sari rohe, ki ba Isfahon meburd, voqe gardida bud. Barobari zindoni shudan Abuali ibni Sino dar hasbi holi khud ba arabi qasidae navisht, ki in bayt az on ast:

Dukhulam dar yaqin tavre, ki didi,

Tamomi shubha dar tarzi khuruj ast.

(Tarjumai Hasani  Naqqosh).

Fardajon az badtarin zindonho buda, dar on jo behokimiyativu beqonuni, chirkinivu kasali, gurusnagiyu tashnagi, duzdivu rishvakhori dar avj budand. Qarib hamai zindoniyon dar po kundayu dar gardan zavlona doshtand. Abuali ibni Sino ham yake az onho bud. Jismi u ba mahbas buda, aqlash, ki zindoni nameshavad, az u talab kard, ki baroyash kogazu davotu rang dihand. Vay on jo ham ba kori ejodi mashgul shuda, asarhoi khud «Hay ibni YAqzon», «Salomonu Absol», «At-tayr», «Al-qulinj» va baroi barodari khud «Al-hidoya» («Rahnamo»)-ro navisht.

Risolahoi «Salomonu Absol», «Hay ibni YAqzon», «Qadr», Tayr» va «Ishq» bo ramzu kinoya va tariqi tamsil ejod shuda, dar borai sarnavisht, tanosubi aqlu jism, kamoloti aql, angezahoi ishq, tasviri olamho, kirdoru atvori boshandagoni olamho, akhloqi hamida, durugu khiyonat, zulmu sitam, jaholatu khudpisandi, bukhlu tama va digar padidahoi akhloqi razila va duri justan az onho bahs mekunand. Insonro dustu yor boyad bud gufta, Abuali ibni Sino mefarmoyad: «YOr baroi on boyad, to bor az dili yori khud bardorad; dust az bahri on boshad, to ranj az dusti khud bargirad. Ammo dar in ruzgor chunin dustu yor ba dast oyad?!»

Qissai «Salomon va Absol» ramzest az nigorishi Abuali ibni Sino, ki mahfuz namondaast. Vale qissai digari «Salomon va Absol», ki mashhur ast, az tarafi Hunayn ibni Ishoq (asri IX) ba rishtai tahrir kashida shudaast. Muvofiqi on, dar zamonhoi khele qadim Hirmonus ibni Haroqdi Sufistifi dar kishvar hukm merond, ki az Rum to kanori bahr va az YUnon to Misr dar itoati u bud. In podshoh tilisme sokhta bud, ki dar tuli sad qarn az shiddati khoku boron va otashu bod, ki anosiri chorgonaand, osebe nadid. Onro Arom meguftand Hirmonus bo zanon nazdik budanro namekhost, ammo dar talabi farzand bud, ki valiahdash shavad. Donishmandi haqnazarkarda Qalikuros az nutfai  Hirmonus bo tadbire farzand ba vujud ovard, pisar. Uro Salomon nom guzosht. Absol nom dukhtari 18-solaro baroi parvarish doya tayin kard. Vaqte kudak az shirkhori baromad, padar khost, ki uro az doya judo sozad. Vale Salomon az Absol yoroi judoi nadosht. Salomon ba omukhtani ilmu donish pardokht. Hirmonus bisyor kushish ba kharj dod, ki Salomonro az Absol dur kunad. Sude nabakhshid. Onho az darbori podshoh gurekhta, dar ishqbozi ruz meguzaronidand. Podshoh ba vasilai asbobhoi jahonnamoi khud onhoro yofta, ba dargohi khud bargardonid. Salomonu Absol ba taziqi Hirmonus tob naovarda, khudro ba mavjhoi domoni bahr partoftand. Absol garq shud. Salomon najot yoft. Salomon bo didani Zuhra Absolu ishqi uro faromush kard. Ammo ba podshohi rasida, bo adlu dod hukm rond.

Murod az in qissa justujuyi haqikat va daryofti asrori jahon ast. SHoh ramzi khirad, Salomon jon, Absol havovu havasi nafsoni buda, ishqi Salomonu Absol lazzati darguzar meboshad. Az hamai in metavon dar natijai riyozatu ilm pok gardid. Ammo dar qissai «Salomonu Absol»-i Abuali ibni Sino, ki  mazmuni onro Nasiriddini Tusi ovardaast, az in qissa darake nest. Muvofiqi on, Salomonu Absol barodaron buda, zani Salomon ba Absol dil basta, bo nayrangho mekhohad  uro ba khud rom sozad. Absol avval nayranghoi zani Salomonro fosh karda, nihoyat giriftori firebi u meshavad. In zani makkora Absolro ba khohari khud aqd basta, khud ba bistari arusi medaroyad. Absol inro fahmida, jaloi vatan mekunad. Ba kishvari Salomon dushmanoni gaddor hujum ovarda, onro toroj mekunand. Absol ba yori meshitobad. Bisyor kishvarhoro ba zeri tasarrufi Salomon, ki shoh bud, medarorad. Nihoyat, zani Salomon ba oshpazu dastarkhondor mefarmoyad, ki Absolro zahr dihand. Absol jon ba jonofarin mesuporad. Salomon az dasisa pay burda, ba zani khud, oshpaz va dastarkhondor az hamon zahr nushonda, olamro az sharri onho pok mesozad. Boz ham adolat bar khiyonatu khayr bar shar galaba mekunad.

In jo niz ramz bar tamomi qissa istilo dorad: Salomon timsoli nafsi notiqa va shakhsiyati oqil buda, Absol ramzi quvvahoi idroku khayol ast. Zani Salomonu hamdastoni u (oshpazu dastarkhondor) maylu khohishro mefahmonad. Ba jazo rasidani onho simvoli kayfari badi va tantanai adolat ast. Hamai in dar yakjoyagi ramzi munosibati quvvahoi mutaqobili ruhi insoni, muborizai hameshagii neki bar ziddi badi va naqli aqli faol dar kamoli manavii inson ast.

SHaykhurrais dar in zindon chahor moh bimond, to on ki hokimi Isfahon Alouddavla dar jange hokimi Hamadonro shikast dod. SHaykhurrais soli 1024 az habs baromada, hamrohi shogirdash Abuubaydi Juzjoni, barodari khud Mahmud va du gulom, ki bo u budand, dar jomai sufiyon, noshinosu pinhoni, khudro to ba darvozai Isfahon rasond. On jo nadimonu khosagoni hokimi Isfahon bo izzatu ikrom SHaykhurraisro peshvoz girifta, ba u sarulibosu savorihoi khos doda, to shahr  hamrohi kardandash.

Bad az in hama sargardoniho Abuali ibni Sino baroi zist az Hamadon ba Isfahon rafta, bo ezozu ikrom az tarafi hokimi on jo Alouddavlai Kokuya (1007-1014) pazirufta shud. Zindagi va ejodiyoti minbadai SHaykhurrais digar ba pushtiboni va dastgirii hamin hokim irtibot paydo kard. Dar Isfahon «Alouddavla qaror dod, ki shabhoi juma dar huzuri u bo ishtiroki tamomi olimon az har tabaqae majlisi bahs barpo kunand». SHaykhurrais az jumlai onho buda, dar Isfahon asarhoi khud «SHifo», «Musiqi», «Lison-ul-arab», «Al-insof», «Ishorotu tanbehot», «Donishnoma» va gayraro navisht.

Alouddavla ruze ba Abuali meguyad, ki «agar ulumi avoil ba iborai porsi budi, man tavonistame donistam», yane agar asosi ilmho ba zaboni tojiki mebud, man kham metavonistam, ki khonda fahmam. Abuali ibni Sino solhoi 414—428 hijri (1023—1036) makhsus baroi Alouddavla «Donishnoma»- ro ba zaboni tojiki talif kard.

Solhoi 1036—1037 baroi Abuali ibni Sino solhoi ranju bemori budand. Alouddavla bo maqsadi zabti Hamadon ba on jo lashkar kashida, SHaykhurraisi bemorro hamrohi khud burd. Dar roh bemorii SHaykhurrais, ki qulinj bud, shiddat girift. U khudro darmon mekard, ammo hej behtar nameshud. Nihoyat, guft: «chorasoze, ki chorai man mesokht, az chorasozi furu mond; aknun darmon sude nadorad». Va har   ruz  tahoratu tavba karda, dar badali har se ruz yak bor Kuronro az yod mekhond. Hamchunin, az kasone, ki ba onho kudurate doshta boshad, uzr khosta, gulomonashro ozodi bakhshida, molu mulkashro ba muhtojon taqsim karda dod. 24 iyuni soli 1037 dar sinni 57-solagi Abuali ibni Sino dar Hamadon vafot kard, ki ruzi jumai mohi ramazon bud. Uro dar hamon jo ba khok supurdand. Oromgohash ziyoratgohi khosu om gardidaast.

Abuali ibni Sino az purmahsultarin olimonu adibon dar jahon ast. Faoliyati ejodii vay az 17— 18 solagiash, dar miyonai solhoi 996—997, shuru shuda, raso chihil sol davom kardaast. Asarhoyashro bo nasru nazm, ba arabi va tojiki, navishtaast. On vaqtho zaboni tojikii adabiro forsii   dari meguftand. Sababi bisyor asarhoi ilmii khudro ba zaboni arabi navishtani Abuali ibni Sino dar on ast, ki arabi misli lotini, ki dar tamomi kishvarhoi nasroni zaboni umumii ilm bud, dar sarosari olami islom zaboni ilmi shinokhta shuda bud. Hamchunin, kitobhoi ziyodi ilmiyu akhloqii yunoni, ibroni, hindi va pahlavi ba zaboni arabi tarjuma shuda, istilohote, ki  mafhumhoi ilmiro mefahmondand, dar on zabon ustuvor gardida budand. Zaboni arabi baroi hamai donishmandoni asrhoi X—XI fahmo buda, darsi madrasaho niz ba in zabon meguzasht.

Osori Abuali ibni Sino nihoyat ziyod ast.48 Az ruyi tadqiqu hisobi donishmandi mashhuri eroni Said Nafisi (1896—1966), miqdori asarhoi Abuali ibin Sino, ki alhol malum shudaast, ba 456 merasad. Dar kitobkhonahoi davlati va shakhsii olam nusakhi 162 asari u nigoh doshta meshavad. Az jumla, 28 asari vay ba zaboni modariash tojikist.

Bar boloi in, yak miqdor sherhoi tojikii Abuali ibni Sino to zamoni mo boqi mondaast.

Asarhoi Abuali ibni Sino az jihati hajm khele gunogun buda, az risolahoi mukhtasar to asarhoi chandinjilda iborat meboshand. «Kitob-ul-insof», ki az bayn raftaast, dar 20 jild, «Al-hosil va-l-mahsul»—20 jild, «Kitob-ush-shifo» — 18 jild, «Lison-ul-arab» — 10 jild, «Al-qonun» — 5 kitob, «Najot» — 3 jild budand. In kitobho bo «Ishorotu tanbehot», «Donishnoma» va gayraho dar inkishofi ilmi dunyo nakshi sazovor guzoshta, to kunun ba arzishi buzurgi tarikhi, madani va ilmi molikand.

Tamomi asarhoi Abuali ibni Sinoro metavon ba chahor guruh taqsim kard: yakum – asarho doir ba hikmat, falsafa, akhloq va mantiq; duvum – asarho oid ba tib; savum – asarho dar borai ilmhoi daqiq; chahorum – asarho roje ba zabonu adabiyot va sanat. Ammo bisyor asarhoi u chandin ilmro faro megirand. Baroi misol, «Donishnoma» az qismathoi «Mantiq», «Ilohiyot», «Tabiiyot», «Hayat» va «Musiqi» tarkib yoftaast. «SHifo» ilohiyot, mantiq, tabiiyot va musiqiro faro megirad.

YAk jihati shigiftovar va hayratangezi shakhsiyati Abuali ibni Sino on ast, ki sohibi neruyi favqulodda balandi kori va quvvai bemonandi hofiza budaast. U dar roh, hangomi suhbat, ijroi vazifai nadimivu vaziri, hatto dar zindonu bemori, ba kori ilmvu ejodi mashgul meshud. Aglabi asarhoi khudro biduni chashmdoshti muzdu mukofote menavisht: gohe bo iltimosi ashkhosi gunoguni oddi, gohe dar javobi savoli kase va gohe baroi shogirdoni khud. Ibni Sino khabar medihad, ki hanuz zamoni dar Bukhoro budanash dar in kor ishtiyoq doshtaast: «Dar hamsoyagii man marde bud, ki uro Abulhasani Aruzi meguftand. Az man khohish kard baroyash kitobe talife kunam, ki jomei ilmho boshad. Baroi u «Al-majmu»-ro talif karda, ba nomi vay nom nihodam va dar on juz ilmi riyozi digar ilmhoro gird ovardam. Maro dar on hangom 21 sol bud («Al-majmu» bo nomhoi «Al-aruziya» va «Hikmati aruziya» niz malum ast – A.A.). Inchunin, dar hamsoyagii man marde bud, ki uro Abubakri Baroqi meguftandu zodai Horazm bud. U mardi donosirisht, dar fiqhu tafsiru zuhd yagona buda, ba in ilmho mayl dosht. Az man sharhi kitobhoro khohish kardu baroi u kitobi «Al-hosil va-l-mahsul» («Hosilu mahsul»)-ro qarib dar 20 jild tasnif kardam. Dar akhloq baroi u kitobe talif kardam, ki onro kitobi «Al-birru va-l-ism» («On chize, ki ijozat doda shudaast, va on chize, ki man ast») nom nihodam. In du kitob tanho nazdi ustu ba hej kas oriyat namedihad, ki az onho nuskha bardorad» 49.

Hamin tariq, Abuali ibni Sino dar Jurjon baroi Abumuhammadi SHerozi oid ba mantiqu nujum kitobho navishta, dar yagon ilm hamto nadosht. Ammo bazeho ba in shubha mekardand. Dar suhbate az olimi zabonshinos Abumansuri Jabbon tanae shunid, ki «tu dar zabon chize nakhondai». Badi in se sol ba omukhtani kitobhoi lugat mashgul gardida, se qasidavu se kitob ofarid. Abumansur on kitobhoro mutolaa karda, az SHaykhurrais uzr pursid. Ba gufti Jurjoni, Abuali ibni Sino «har ruze panjoh varaq menavisht». Kitobi «Najot»-ro dar roh gird ovarda, «SHifo»-ro, ba istisnoi qismathoi nabototu hayvonot, ba anjom rasond.

Bore dar Jurjon az donishmandoni SHeroz savolnomae rasid, ki az mushkiloti yak kitobi SHaykhurrais purson meshudand. Savolnomai sheroziyonro hangome ba Abuali rasondand, ki  ruzi tobiston, vaqti zardii oftob, dar suhbate bud. Vay ba nomai sheroziyon «menigaristu mardum bayni khud suhbat mekardand. To vaqti namozi bomdod SHaykhurrais dar panjoh safha javobhoro navishta, ba dasti qosid rasond. Qosid  az in kor sakht dar hayrat monda,  hadis dar bayni mardum qissae shud».

Roje ba shakhsiyatu zakovati Abuali ibni Sino bisyor naqlu rivoyatu afsonahoi khalqi mavjudand, ki az aqli rasoi u shahodat doda, muhabbati mardumro nisbat ba farzandi nobigai khud ifoda menamoyand. Az jumla, rivoyat mekunand, ki yak amiri Somoni ruze, baroi sanjidani Buali, mefarmoyad, ki dar tagi chor poyai kursii vay chahor tanga nihand. CHun Buali ba kursi menishinad, ba osmonu zamin nigoh afkanda, bo taajjub sar mejunbonad. Sababi dar taajjub aftodani uro mepursand. Vay javob medihad: «Ba nazaram, kursii man imruz ba miqdori pushti korde baland gashta va yo shifti khona hamin miqdor ba zamin  nazdik   shudaast».  Hamai  hoziron  ba  hissiyoti  balandi Abuali qoil shuda, uro ofarin meguyand.

Va Buali dar vaqti gurezagiash ba Isfahon meravad, ki hamrohi khud hej guna kitobe nadoshtaast. Talabagonu olimon az vay khohish kardaand, ki «Qonun»-ro baroi khondan ba onho bidihad. Abuali guftaast, ki hej guna kitobe nadorad, vale «Qonun»-ro metavonad az yod gufta dihad. Sipas chand sahifai «Qonun»-ro az yod guftaastu onho navishta giriftaand. Bad az on kitobi «Qonun»-ro yofta, navishtai khudro bo on muqoisa kardaand, ki farqe nadoshtaast.

Va yo kase ba Buali kitobi khudash navishtagiro nishon dodaast. Abuali kitobro varaq zadaastu boz ba sohibash bargardonidaast. Ruze hamon  odam kitobashro  ba  podshoh peshkash kardaast. Podshoh pursidaast: «In kitobro ki navisht?» «Man»guftaast on shakhs. Abuali, ki dar on jo hozir budaast, «ne, in kitobro shumo nanavishtaed», – gufta, az sahifai avval to okhir, nukta ba nukta, kitobro az yod gufta dodaast. On shakhs bisyor khijolat kashidaast. Bad Buali hakiqati voqearo ba podshoh fahmondaast.

In  nav naqlu rivoyatho, ki aslan  az hakiqat dur nestand, dar bayni mardum khele ziyodand.

Qablan ishora shud, ki soli 1012 dar Jurjon Abuubaydi Abdulvohidi Jurjoni bo Ibni Sino vokhurda, shogirdivu yovarii SHaykhurraisro pazirufta, chun murid digar hej az u judo nameshud. Dar hamai safarho hamrohi SHaykhurrais buda, asarhoyashro jam meovard, osori notamomi ustodashro az ruyi guftahovu navishtahoi pareshoni khudi alloma takmil medod, ba onho sharh mebast. Jurjoni debocha va qismati «Riyoziyot»-i kitobi «Najot»-ro navishtaast. Qismati «Riyozi»-i «Donishnomai Aloi» badi margi Ibni Sino gum shuda bud. Jurjoni qismathoi «Riyozi» va «Musiqi»-ro az «Najot», ki arabist, ba forsi bargardonda, ba «Donishnoma» afzuda, onro purra gardond. Hamchunin, Jurjoni ba kitobhoi ziyodi SHaykhurrais sharhho navishtaast. Alhol sharhhoi Jurjoni ba asarhoi Ibni Sino  «Kitob-ush-shifo», «Qasidai ayniya», «Hay ibni YAqzon», «Salomonu Absol» va amsoli inho malum ast. Jurjoni soli 1047 dar Hamadon vafot karda, dar hamon jo ba khok supurda shud.

SHogirdoni Abuali ibni Sino Abuabdullohi Masumi, Ibni Abusodiq, payravi keshi zardushti Ibni Zayla, Abdullohi Iroqi, Abumuhammadi SHerozi, Sulaymoni Dimishqi, Bahmanyor ibni Marzbon, ki niz zardushti bud, dar ilmhoi falsafa, mantiq, hikmat, tabiiyot, riyoziyot, nujum, tib, ravonshinosi, ilohiyot, musiqi, fasohatu balogat va gayra chun olimoni zabardast shinokhta shudaand.

Abuali ibni Sino dar jahon, pesh az hama, chun faylasuf va pizishki nomi shinokhta shudaast. Asarhoi mashhuri u dar sohai falsafa va mantiq «Kitob-ush-shifo», «Najot», «Ishorotu tanbehot», «Donishnoma» meboshand, ki umdatarin masalahoi falsafaro faro megirand. «Kitob-al-infos», ki az 20 jild iborat buda, oid ba 28 hazor masalavu nuktahoi falsafi bahs mekard, boqi namondaast.

Osori falsafii SHaykhurrais masoili tanosubi Hudo va tabiat, shaklhoi hasti, moddavu surat, nafsu tan, sababu natija, zaruratu mohiyati harakat, zamonu makon, mohiyati zindagi va amsoli inro faro megirand. Doir ba nazariyai marifat Abuali Sino fikrhoi ajoib pesh rondaast.

Asarhoi Ibni Sino dar tuli asrho borho ba zabonhoi lotini, yahudi, inglisi, olmoni, itoliyovi, faronsavi, rusi, turki va gayra tarjumavu nashr shudaand. Masalahoi akhloq, hayoti ijtimoivu siyosi, tarbiya va talim dar «Risola fi-l-akhloq», «Risolai ilmi peshinu barin», «Risola dar adli podshoh», «Mantiqi forsi», «Risolai tilismoti forsi», «Tadbiri manzil» va amsoli inho niz bayon shudaand.

«Donishnoma», ki  nomi purraash «Donishnomai Aloi»-st, baroi Alouddavla ba tojiki talif gardida, doir ba mantiq., ilohiyot, tabiiyot, hayat va musiqi bahs mekunad. Abuali Sino dar «Donishnoma» ba joyi bisyor kalimavu mafhumhoi roiji arabi murodifhoi tojikii onhoro ba kor burda, baroi ustuvor gardidani istilohoti ilmii forsi khidmati arzandaero ba joy ovardaast. Baroi namuna yak miqdor istilohhoe zikr meshavand, ki Abuali Sino dar «Donishnoma» ba kor burdaast: jam-gird, mizon-tarozu, harakat-junbish, muharrik-junbanda, ashyo-chizho, shohid-guvoh, shahodat-guvohi, vujud-hasti, harorat-garmi, nav-guna, quvvat-neru, maqbul-paziro, tarbiya-parvarish, musallas- sesu, murabba-chorsu, fel-kunish, ism-nom, jism-tan va gayraho.

Naqshi Abuali ibni Sino dar inkishofi ilmi adabiyotshinosii forsu tojik niz buzurg ast. Qismi nazarrasi «Al-majmu», ki bo nomi «Risolai hikmati aruz» malum ast, ba masalahoi nazariyai sher bakhshida shudaast. Ammo kitobi «Fanni sher», ki bakhshe az «SHifo»-st, sarosar dar in mavzu bahs mekunad. Dar in asar Abuali Sino ba sharhu tavzehi «Poetika» («Fanni sher»)-i Arastu pardokhta, afkori uro khele inkishof dodaast. Ibni Sino aqidai Arasturo dar borai mohiyati sher, navhovu oroish va tasiri emotsionalii on ba nafsi inson va taqlid ba zindagi (mimessis) budanash pazirufta, onro «takhayyul» tabir kardaast. Az ruyi in aqida, u sherro chun sukhani khayolangezu mavzun, barobar va qofiyador manidod karda, dar sirishti on manovu donish budanro az lavhi khotir nameafganad va, makhsusan, arzishi zebopisandi va irtiboti onro bo musiqivu raqs takid menamoyad. Qarib tamomi sukhanshinosoni minbadai forsu tojik payravi nazariyai Abuali ibni Sino oid ba sher budaand.

Abuali ibni Sino chun tabiatshinosi buzurg dar asarhoi khud «Risolai kimiyo», «Maqola dar borai jirmhoi osmoni», «Musiqi» va monandi inho niz ba masalahoi falsafayu ilmhoi dakiq dakhl   kardaast.

Abuali Sino buzurgtarin donishmandi sohai tib buda, chun ustodi tabiboni olam na faqat ba    faoliyati ruzmarrai tibbi shugl mevarzid, balki dar asarhoi jahonshumuli   khud   tajribai   besh   az   2000-solai   tibbi YUnoni Qadim, Hind, Eron, yahud va arabro jambast kard.   Vay  asarhoi  khud  «Risolai  javdiya»,  «Risolai nabz»  yo  «Ragshinosi»,  «Qurozai  tabiiyot»,  «Tashreh-ul-azo»-ro   ba   tojiki   navishtaast.    Dar     «Risolai javdiya» usuli nigohubini khud, hifzi salomati, peshgiri kardan  az bemorihoi ziyod, ki alomathoyashon bayon  shudaand, khotirnishon    megardad.  Dar    in asar, hamchunin, dar borai usuli tabobati morgazida, kaykgazida, rezondanu nest kardani hasharot, mor, mush va gayra maslihathoi sudbakhsh medihad.

«Risolai nabz» va «Davohoi dardi dil» dar khususi sanjishi nabzi bemoron, jigunagii bemori, munosibati jinsi, khususiyathoi khosi mardu zan, az ruyi nabz muayyan kardani kasaliho, illathoi dil va tarzi tabobati onho va doruhoe, ki dar tabobati dardi dil ba kor burda meshavand, bahs mekunand.

Asari digari Abuali Sino «Al-vohiya», ki az 149 bob iborat buda, har bobash roje ba yak kasali va yo guruhi kasaliho bahs mekunad. Dar on 907 navi doru tavsif meshavad, ki az 709 giyoh va 74 moddai madani tayyor shuda, 94 nomguyi on doruhoe meboshand, ki az azoi hayvonot tayyor karda meshavand.

Hususiyati barjastai asarhoi tibbii Abuali ibni Sino on ast, ki dar onho, barobari istifodai dastovardhoi tibbi peshin, tajribai shakhsii khudi alloma ba nazar girifta shudaast. Az in jihat, aksariyati onho imruz ham dar istifoda meboshand va qimatu mohiyati ilmivu amaliashonro gum nakardaand.

YAke az asarhoi mashhuri tibbii Abuali Sino manzumai «Urjuza fi-t-tib» ast, ki dar hajmi 1326 bayti sheri ba zaboni arabi talif shuda, bisyor nuktahoi tibro, ki dar «Al-qonun» mavjudand, ba tarzi sodda, ommafahm va mukhtasar bayon mekunad. Dar in    asar doir ba tamomi dardu illathoi badan, mizoj va tabi inson sukhan meravad.

Buzurgtarin asari alloma oid ba tib «Al-qonun» ast, ki nomi purrai on «Al-qonun-fi-t-tib», yane «Qonun dar borai tib» buda, onro kutohak «Qonun» niz meguyand. «Al-qonun» solhoi 1012—1024 ba zaboni  arabi talif gardida, az panj kitob iborat ast. Muallif dar on tamomi tajribahoi tibbi guzashtaro jambast karda, dar asosi sanjishu ozmudahoi shakhsi talimoti navi tibbii kheshro erod menamoyad. Ba gufti Ibni Sino, «tib ilmest dar borai donistani tani inson dar holi salomati yo bemori va bargardonidani salomatii inson, ki ru ba zaf ovardaast». Tabibi nomi ilmi tibro ba du bakhsh — tibbi nazari, yane ilmi usulii tib va tibbi amali, yane tarzi tabobat judo mekunad. Ba tarzi digar guem, «Al-qonun» asarest, ki dar borai majmui bemoriho, vasilai tabobati onho, vobastagii tajribahoi ilmi va usuli khalqii istifodai onho, tandurusti va muhofizati salomatii inson bahs mekunad.

 Kitobi avvali «Al-qonun» oid ba mohiyat, nazariya va vazifahoi ilmi tib, qismathoi nazari va amalii on, mizojhoi inson va munosnbati onho bo garmiyu sardi, tashrehi uzvhoi badan, vazifahoi azoi badan, nabz, sababhoi tandurusti va bemori, tasnifi kasaliho, usulhoi umumii tabobat va noguzir budani marg bahs mekunad. Hamchunin, dar borai istemoli mutadili gizo, varzish, parvarishi tiflonu tarbiyai navrason sukhan meravad.

Tabibi buzurg roje ba rejai ruz muvofiqi sinnu sol va tob ovardan ba sharoiti iqlim fikrhoi ajoib meronad.

Tadqiqu    sanjishi 811  nav dorui sodda,    tarzi tayyor kardanu khosiyati onho, dorushinosi va tarzi istifodai doruho mundarijai kitobi duvumi «Al-qonun» ast.

Kitobi savum roje ba bemorihoi gunoguni inson az sar to poy, varami shush, qulinj, ishol, kasalihoi chashm, bini, gush, gulu, dahon, kasalihoi ruhi va tarzi tabobati onho bahs mekunad. Abuali Sino pesh az bayoni bemorii har uzv yo sistemai uzvho sokhtu tashrehi onhoro mavridi barrasi qaror medihad.

Dar kitobi chahorumi «Al-qonun» az usulu zarurati jarrohi, shikastabandii ustukhonho, zuhuroti tab, omos, saraton, sukhtagiho, zakhmho, khunraviho, kasalihoi ruhi, bemorihoe, ki khosi yagon andomu uzv nestand, kasalihoi siroyatkunanda, tarzi tabobati onho, zahru pozahrho, orostagi va qubh sukhan meravad.

Masalahoi dorusozi va ashyoi nabobotu  hayvonot va  madanho     mavzui  bahsi  kitobi  panjumi «Al-qonun» ast.

Ba gufti Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi (asri XI) tabibro «pas az mutoliai «Al-qonun» hojat ba digar kitobhoi tibbi nayaftad», ki dar asri XII ba lotini, badi yak asr ba yahudi tarjuma shuda, dar davomi besh az 600 sol (asrhoi HP—HUSH) kitobi darsii donishgohhoi tibbii Avrupo budaast.

SHaykhurrais Abuali ibni Sino, barobari faylasufi buzurg va pizishki suturg budan, dar inkishofi bisyor sohahoi ilmhoi daqiq, musiqi va akhloq niz sahmi purarzishe guzoshtaast. Naqshi Abuali Sino dar sohai ulumi vobasta ba zabonu adabiyot niz khurd nest. Vay, pesh az hama, istilohoti ilmii zabonhoi arabi va tojikiro khele takmil doda, ba tufayli «Donishnoma», risolahoi tojiki va asarhoi alohidai muosironi u sobit gardid, ki zaboni tojiki  qodir ast manihoi amiqi falsafi va ilmiro ifoda namoyad. Hamchunin, Ibni Sino «Lison-ul-arab» nom asare talif karda bud. ki misli on dar lugat dida nashudaast. Asari digari alloma «Makhorij-ul-huruf» dar borai savtiyot (fonetika) bahs mekunad. Risolahoi ziyodash roje ba ilmhoi digari adab va surahoi alohidai Quron niz malumand, ki chande az onho boqi mondaand, ki ba sohahoi zabon va adabiyot dakhl   dorand.

YAk nuktaro takid kardan lozim ast, ki dar aksari asarhoi Ibni Sino masalai akhloq, ki ba adabiyot irtiboti zich dorad, mavridi bahs qaror megirad. Binobar talimoti akhloqii Ibni Sino, mard, pesh az hama, boyad dar islohi nafsi khud bikushad, kheshtanro solihu neku gardonad, pokdinu parhezgor boshad, dar akhloqu odob, adolatu muruvvat, rostivu shujoat namuna boshad. In guna mard baroi osoish va davom dodani naslash boyad zan bigirad; zane, ki az jihati aql solimu tandurust boshad. Bad az one, ki ba balogat rasidu sohibi malumotu kasbi khud gardid, mardro zarur ast, ki avval gami khonavu manzilro bikhurad, khudu ahli khonavodaro bo pushoku khurok, ki moli hayot ast, tamin namoyad.

Ibni   Sino   nisbat   ba zan chunin  talabhoro  pesh meguzorad: «Zani shoistavu neku shariki mard ast dar mulkash va qoyimi ust dar molash va jonishini vay ast dar khonaash va amini vay ast dar parvarishu tarbiyati farzandonash». Az nigohi Ibni Sino, «behtarin zan zanest, ki doroi sifoti zayl boshad:

  1. Hiradmand boshad.
  2. Dindor boshad.
  3. Bosharm boshad.
  4. Ziraku bofatonat boshad.
  5. Dustdoru bomuhabbat boshad.
  6. Zoyanda boshad.
  7. Zabondaroz naboshad.
  8. Itoatkor boshad.
  9. Pokdilu begash boshad.
  10. Dar pushti sari mard va holi gaybati u nigahdori sharafu nomus boshad.
  11. Vazninu sangin boshad.
  12. Boviqor boshad.
  13. Bohaybat boshad.
  14. Dar maqomi khidmat ba shavharash takabbur navarzad, balki furutan boshad.
  15. Tadbiri koru kirdorashro khubu neku binamoyad.
  16. Andaki shavharashro ba sarfajuyi ziyod kunad.
  17. Gardu gubori huznu anduhro az dili shavharash ba vasilai akhloqi neku va zabonash pok kunad va humumi shavharashro bo lutfi madori khud tasalliyyat dihad».

Albatta, zani doroi chunin khislatho nekmardro khushbakhtu saodatmand megardonad.

Odami muhtoj ast ba vujudi farzande, ki hangomi dardmandivu piri ba padaru modar khizmat rasonad, pas az marg nomi onhoro giromivu zinda nigah dorad. Albatta, chunin farzand khud az khud ba vujud nameoyad. Farzandro bo talimu tarbiya metavon ba in daraja rasond. Baroi padar farzu qarz ast, ki ba farzandash nomi khubu neku guzorad, ilmash biomuzonad va kasbash yod dihad.

Ba farzand khattu savod, zaruriyoti diniya, Quroni majid, ilmhoi adab, qoidahoi zabon, sukhanshinosiro hatman yod boyad dod. Ammo ilm beokhir ast. Kasoni tolib metavonand tamomi umr ilm omuzand. Ilm nurest, ki ba nafsi kas safo mebakhshad. Hizmat ba mardum va hamnavoni khud behtarin khislati odamist. Ba gufti Ibni Sino, odam boyad bo tamomi quvva ilm omuzad, mohiyati onro dark namoyad; ilmro dar amal ba kor barad, zero ilm sababi peshravi, charogi jon ast, ki onro SHaykhurrais ba shisha monand mekunad, va hamai in az hikmati insoni rushnoyi mepazirad:

Tark binmo jumlaro, jon bar hama mavo buvad,

Peshraftu behtari jonro hama bo ilmhost!

Jon misoli shisha astu ilm monandi charog,

Hikmati insoniro ravgan shumoridan ravost.

Dar haqiqat, zinda hasti dar dami rakhshidanash,

Gar shavad torik, on lahza hayotat dar fanost!

(Tarjuma az arabi).

Inson niyozmandi dust ast; duste, ki munisu gamkhor boshad. Dust boyad misli oyina boshad. SHakhs boyad dar chunin dust tamomi hunarho va aybu nuqsonhoi khudro binad, bo madadi u az gurur, khudpisandi, akhloqi  noshoista, hamnishini bad, koru kirdori zishtu past rahoi yobad, az badiho dur gardad. Insoni tarbiyatyofta dar dusti ustuvor, khayrandesh va baroi mardum khizmatgor meshavad. CHunin shakhs haq dorad, ki ba siyosatu sarvarii mardum va korhoi davlati shugl varzad. Hidoyat ba kori khayr pokizatarin kori nek va bakhti baland ast. YAgon lazzati darguzar khushbakhti nest. In ast magzi talimoti insondustonai faylasuf va adibi buzurgi tojik Ibni Sino.

Abuali ibni Sino ba arabi va tojiki sherho navishtaast. Asarhoi manzumi u ba zaboni arabi az qasoid, qitahoi falsafi, pandu hikmat, tanzu tanqid, ishqu muhabbat, hamchunin urjuzaho iboratand. Urjuza ashorest, ki dar bahri rajaz ejod gardidaast. Dar borai «Urjuza fi-t-tib» dar bolo sukhan rondem, ki bo ejodi on Buali ananai Ustod Rudaki va Maysariro davom dodaast. Manzumai Rudaki «Davroni Oftob» ilmi nujumro bo sher bayon mekard. Maysari boshad, dar zamoni Rudaki doir ba ilmi tib ba tojiki manzumae navishta bud, ki 5500 baytro faro girifta, imruz ham boqist. Buali Sino boz dah urjuzai digar navishta budaast, ki sohahoi gunoguni donishro bayon mekunand. «Qasidai ayniya», yane qasidae, ki qofiyai  on bo harfi «ayn» tamom meshavad, mazmuni falsafi doshta, dar on roje ba sayri aql, nisbati tanu jon su khan meravad.

Mazmunu mundarijai goyavii sherhoi tojikii Abuali ibni Sino bo mazmuni osori ilmi va ashori arabiash robitai nogusastani dorand.

Soli 1980 dar Dushanbe tahti unvoni «Avji Zuhal» majmuai ashori Abuali ibni Sino ba tab rasid, ki dar on 4 gazal, 3 qita, 38 ruboi va 2 fard az sherhoi tojikii SHaykhurrais joy doda shudaast. Inchunin, dar on majmua tarjumai forsii   «Qasidai ayniya» iborat az 42 bayt dar shakli masnavi, asli on qasida va chand porcha sheri arabii alloma nashr gardidaast. Mazmuni in sherhoro falsafa, akhloq, pand, hikmat, ishq, muhabbat, may va tanqid tashkil medihad. Justuju va daryofti rozi ashyovu hodisaho, umed az kashfi haqoiqi ilohi va, nihoyat, ba khulosae omadan, ki asrori gayb khosi Allohi Taolo buda, baroi bandagon rozi kashfnashavandaest, mazmuni aglabi chunin sherhost.

 Abuali ibni Sino bo afsus meguyad:

Ay kosh, bidoname, ki man kistame,

Sargashta ba olam az payi chistame?!

Gar muqbilam, osudavu khush zistame,

Varna ba hazor dida bigristame!

In mazmun dar asarhoi gunoguni SHaykhurrais bisyor takror meshavad. Dar gazale ham u bo shubhavu nadomat mefaromoyad:

Kas nadonad, ki man kujo raftam,

Hud nadonam, ki man kujo budam!

Hangomi zindagi va badi margi Ibni Sino ham asrho ahli khurofotu tasavvuf uro ba bedini aybdor mekardand, chunki SHaykhurrais notarsona va beriyo alayhi nodoniyu jahl khuruj mekard. In guruhho, ki khudro donoi jahon meshumurdand, aksar odamoni dar aqida mahdud, kamdonish va dar binish tangnazar budand. Onho ba allomai zamon bo chashmi adovat nigarista, bar ziddi u hamlahoi devonavor ovarda, kofirash meguftand. Ibni Sino ham ba onho dar ohangi khudashon javob megardond:

Bo in du-se nodon, ki chunin medonand

Az jahl, ki donoi jahon eshonand,

Har bosh, ki in jamoa az farti khari,

Har k-u na khar ast, kofirash mekhonand!

Abuali ibni Sino bo tavozu etirof menamoyad, ki aksari asrori olamro kashf karda boshad ham, dar marifati Haq natavonistaast chizero bifahmad:

Dar parda sukhan nest, ki malum nashud,

Kam mond zi asror, ki mafhum nashud.

Dar marifatat, chu nek fikre kardam,

Malumam shud, ki hech malum nashud!

Albatta, in etirozi alloma durust ast, ki ba kunhi vujudi Hudovand narasidaast, zero on az iqtidori inson berun va khosi khudi Parvardigor ast. Ammo dar hamin jo ham Abuali ibni Sino ba darki bisyor nuktahoi boriki asrori Hudovandi rasidaast. Masalan, kashf kardaast, ki Haq — yane vojibtaolo joni jahon, boisu ofaridgori jumla hastihost; jahon guyo badanest, ki hamai mavjudot, yane odamu maloika metavonand dark binamoyand, ki tamomi jamodotu nabotot va hayvonoti jahon az unsurhoi chahorgona – khoku obu otashu bod sokhta shudaast, ki hamai inro tavhid, yane yak budani khilqat, yane ofarinish meguyand. Digar hamai talimot dar borai khilqat va vahdati khalloq-ofaranda va makhluq-ofaridashudaho durug buda, qobili paziruftan nest.

Ibni Sino dar yak ruboii khud mefarmoyad:

Haq joni jahon astu jahon jumla badan,

Ajnosu maloika —  havosi in tan!

Ajrom — anosiru mavolid — azo,

Tavhid hamin astu digarho hama — fan!

Farqi ashori Ibni Sino az sherhoi shoironi digar on ast, ki aksaran az mazmunhoi falsafi sirishta shuda, andeshahoi faylasufi jahoniro roje ba nuktahoi boriki in fan ifoda namuda, dar aglabashon ifsho nagardidani asrori Ilohi takid meshavad. Ba ruboii zer tavajjuh namoed:

Ay zoti tu  mar vujudro buda asos,

Juz zoti tu nest hej kas zotshinos!

Kasro ba kamolu kunhi zotat rah nest,

Bar feli tu mekunand zoti tu qiyos!

Ba  andeshai Abuali Sino, olamu havodisi on hamesha dar gardish buda, obodivu kharobi doimo yakdigarro metavonand ivaz kunand:

Har hayatu har naqsh, ki shud mahr kunun,

Dar makhzani ruzgor gardad makhzun.

CHun boz hamin vaz shavad vazi falak,

Az pardai gaybat ovarad Haq berun.

Ammo az in tagyirotu ivazshaviho, ki hamaash dar khazinai ruzgor mahfuz ast, tajriba boyad girift, zero Hudovand qodir ast kharobihoro ba obodoni va obodihoro ba vayroni tabdil dihad. Inro ba chashmi ibratbin boyad did.

Talimoti akhloqii Abuali ibni Sino ba andukhtani donish, omukhtani hunar, giromidoshti dusti, sitoishi rafoqat, talqini adlu insof va targibi neki nigaronda shudaast. Muballigi buzurgi akhloqi muhassan az muridu  musohiboni khud darkhost menamoyad, ki  imruz boyad korero, ki az dastashon meoyad, anjom dihand, zero pagoh der khohad shud:

3-on pesh, ki  az jahon furu moni fard,

On bih, ki  naboyadat pushaymoni kh(v)ard!

Imruz bikun, chu metavoni, kore,

Fardo chi kuni, ki hech natvoni kard!

Pandu nasihathoi sudmandi Buali Sino misli hikmatu andarzhoi Rudakivu Firdavsi ba arzishi balandi tarbiyavi molik buda, akhloqi shoistai jamiyatiro targib menamoyand. Dar gazale Abuali ibni Sino khislathoi badero barmeshumorad, ki insoni haqiqi az onho boyad pok boshad, ki hasad, pasti, durug, talbandagi, tarsonchaki, mumsiki, nolidan az ruzgor, dunyoparasti, az ajal tarsidan va, nihoyat, gussa khurdan az nazdik shudani margi khud az on jumlaand:

Harom ast dah chiz bar rodmard,

K-az on shash buvad mardi ozoda fard:

Hasad burdanu siflagiyu durug,

Namudan niyozu zaifiyu dard.

CHu nimat buvad, dast bar duston

Biboyad kushudan ba dodu ba kh(v) ard.

CHu shiddat buvad, roz paydo makun,

Bihil, to shavad ruyat az dard zard.

Savole nayarzad sarosar jahon,

CHu farjom boshad yake ohi sard.

Ajal nardboz astu mo muhraem,

Falak kabataynu jahon takhti nard!

Az ruyi farmudai Ibni Sino, oqibatandesh va durustpaymon budan az khislathoi khubi odamist. Binobar hamin, misli on ki odam az shakare, ki bo zahr omekhtaast, va yo az pashshae, ki bar mor nishinad, az duste, ki  bo dushmanash oshno shud, parhez boyad namoyad:

Bo dushmani man chu dust bisyor nishast,

Bo dust naboyadam digar bor nishast.

Parhez az on shakar, ki  bo zahr omekht,

Bigrez az on magas, ki  bar mor nishast!

In aqida, aslan, az talimoti dini sarchashma giriftaast, ki gufta meshavad: dustoni Hudoi taoloro dust dored, dushmanonashro dushman angored!

Abuali ibni Sino har qadar dustiro sitoyad, hamon qadar dushmaniro mazammat menamoyad va dar yake az gazalhoi hasbiholii  arabiash dushmanoni khudro, ki  bar ziddash hamlahoi devonavor ovarda, tahqirash mekardand, ba sagoni akkosi tashbeh medihad, chunki odamoni solimaqlu odil mebudand, bo vay adovat namevarzidand, zero aqlu adolat bo jahlu adovat sozgor nestand:

Ba dilho vahm agar az man namebudi, nameguftam

Sukhan az bakhshishi aybam, namekardand tahqiram.

Zi tarsi sheri gurron choh kovandu zanand avav,

Girift ovozi on sagho, valekin man hamon sheram!

Pagohi jasta az jo, kaj nazar duzand suyi man,

Zi bas bedoramu shabho zi mehnat dil namegiram.

Agar chashmi adolat budi dar joyi adovat, pas

Namedidi qabeh on  korhoi nagztasiram!

(Tarjuma az arabi)

Albatta, jahoni fikru andeshahoi talimii SHaykhurrais bo targibi dusti va tanqidi dushmani mahdud namegardad. Ganimat donistani umru ba korhoi khayr sarf kardanash az talabhoi jiddii digari ust:

Raft on guhare, ki bud piroyai umr,

V-ovard zamona toqi sarmoyai umr.

Az ruyi sapedam sari pistoni umed,

Bingar, ki siyoh mekunad doyai umr!

Uslubi vijai nigorishi ruboii mazkur dar on ast, ki sukhanhoi fasehu zebovu gushnavoz (guhar, piroyai umr, toq), majoz (sarmoyai umr, pistoni umed, doyai umr) va gayra ustodona istifoda shuda, darki matlabu maniro sabuku ravshanu oson gardonidaand, ki khosi sabki Rudakivu sahli mumtaneand.

Umuman, masalahoi murakkabi falsafavu akhloqro bo sukhanoni shirini ruhparvar samimona ifoda kardan mahorati balandi shoirii Abuali ibni Sinoro namoish medihad. Dar ruboii zerin ba insonho pand doda meshavad, ki kas naboyad pobandi nafs, giriftori havovu havas shavad, dunyotalabu johkhoh boshad, ki oqibat az duston judovu ba dushmanon giriftor megardonad. Abualii Sino na tanho khudi inson, balki nafsro tashkhisonda, onro mukhotab qaror medihad:

Ay nafs, ki bastai havovu havasi,

Bishtob, ki dar himoyati yak nafasi!

Dunyo matalab, joh maju, ishva makhar,

K-az dust baroyivu ba dushman birasi!

Dar bayti poyon tazodi arshu farsh, ki pahnoi jahonro mefahmonad, ustodona ba kor raftaast, yane, kas metavonad az khoksorivu  furutani mahbubi dilho gardad:

Agar zi hastii khud bigzari, yaqin medon,

Ki arshu farshi falak zeri po tavoni kard!

Ohangi navozish az baythoi zerin huvaydost:

Ruzake chand dar jahon budam

Bar sari khoku bod paymudam.

Soate lutfu lahzae dar qahr

Joni pokizaro biyoludam.

Andesharo ba vositai korburdi    sanathoi baland ifoda namudan az khususiyoti digari sabki shoirii  Ibni  Sinost. Az jumla, bunyodi  qitai  zayl  sarosar ba sanati tashkhis nihoda shudaast:

Ba har diyor, ki  khashmi tu korzor kunad,

Zamona bar sari khunobai jigar gardad.

Magar, ki bahr ba khoki dari tu nazdik ast,

Ki ruzgor az u dastpurguhar gardad?!

Korzor kardani khashm tashkhis va khunobai jigaru sari  khunobai  jigar majoz   buda,  dar   dokhili     tashkhis omadaand.  Ruboii zerin niz bo tashkhis, sukhanbozi va muboligae, ki dar dokhilash tazod hast, gufta shudaast:

Dil garchi dar in bodiya bisyor shitoft,

YAk muy nadonist, vale muy shikoft.

Andar dili man hazor khurshed bitoft

V-okhir ba kamoli zarrae roh nayoft.

Baze sherhoi Abuali ibni Sino bo kamtar oroishu peroish, vale sodavu fahmo insho gardida, matlabi shoir bo kalimahoi hamohang, majozho, sifatho va istioraho bayon yoftaast, ki farmonu davati mahzest:

Bo har khase zi ruyi havo dusti mador,

Bo har kase zi sodadili rozi khud maguy!

Bo mardumi muzavviri badasli badguhar

Dar kuyi mardumi zi payi dusti mapuy!

Gar boyadat, ki kam nashavad obruy, tu

Farmonu ikhtiloti furumoyagon majuy!

Dar obruy kush, azero ki obi ruy

CHun kam shavad, bad-u napazirand obruy!

 In nav sherho bayoniya va khitobahoi pandguyonu omuzgoroni tamomi davru zamonhoro memonand:

Gumon baram, ki dar on ruzgori tira chu shab

Bikhuft chashmi muruvvat, bimurd modari jud.

Zi sayri haft sitora dar on duvozdah burj

Ba dah-duvozdah sol andar in diyoru hudud

Hazor shakhsi karim az vujud shud ba adam,

Ki yak karim nameoyad az adam ba vujud!

Bayti avval magzi matlabro ifoda karda, haft sitora dar bayti duvum haft sayyoraro mefahmonad; duvozdah burj duvozdah burji falakist, ki ramzi duvozdah mohi har sol ast; adam dar bayti okhirin nestist; hosili maqsudi shoir on ast, ki digar dar dunyo muruvvatu sakhovat boqi namonda, dah-duvozdah sol boz hol hamin ast, ki misoli digari asari ruzgor ba afkori mardumi ruzgor, az jumla, sukhanvari zamon, meboshad.

 Ashori ishqiro Abuali Sino az toru pudi latofatu nazokat mebofad, ki ruboii zerin guvohi durustii chunin davost:

Ay dil, hama jomi oshiqi nush chu gul,

Payvasta libosi oshiqi push chu gul!

CHun sham zaboni otashin dorad ishq,

Zinhor mabosh punbadargush chu gul!

SHerhoi SHaykhurrais miqdoran kam boshand ham, dar tarikhi nazmi forsu tojik maqomi arjmandero ishgol namuda, baroi bisyoriho sarmashqi  amal qaror giriftaand.

Biduni shubha, Abuali ibni Sino az donoyoni buzurgu mutafakkironi suturgest, ki bo asarhoi tibbiyu falsafi va adabii khud dar tuli hazor soli guzashta dar kishvarhoi ziyodi SHarqu Garb shuhrati bemonand paydo kardaast. U dar tib olimest, ki tajribai ilmi jahonii pesh az khudro jambast namuda, baroi oyandagon asarhoi arzandae ba yodgor guzoshtaast, ki shohrohi minbadai ilmro muayyan kardaand. «Urjuza fi-t-tib» va «Al-qonun», ki dar tarikhi ilmi tib hamto nadorand, hanuz dar asri HP az tarafi Jerardi Kremoni (1114— 1187) ba lotini bargardonda shuda budand, ki badho Andri Alpagus tahriru islohash namud. Soli 1279 Natan-ta-Meati (Hammati) «Al-qonun»-ro ba yahudi tarjuma kard. Bad az ikhtiroi dastgohi chop «Al-qonun» ba zaboni lotini nakhustin bor soli 1473 dar Venesiya va soli 1491 dar Neapol nashr gardid. Dar asri XV 15 bor va dar asri XVI ziyoda az 20 marotiba chop shud. Az jihati miqdori chop «Al-qonun» bo kitobi muqaddasi masehiyon «Bibliya» barobar meomad. Mukammaltarin tarjumai lotinii «Al-qonun» ba qalami Plembiy mutaalliq ast, ki soli 1658 dar Lvov chop shudaast. Matni aslii arabii on soli 1593 dar Rim (Itoliyo) nashr shud. Dar yak rasmi kandakorii asrhoi miyona, ki dar Avrupo kashida shudaast, Ibni Sino toj bar sar va dar du pahluyash Buqrotu Jolinus aks yoftaand. «Al-qonun» ba bisyor zabonhoi digari jahoni mutamaddin gashtayu bargashta tarjumavu nashr shudaast. Onro Dante, Leonardo da Vinchi, Kant, Vezaliy khonda, az on iqtibosho ovardaand. «Al-qonun» dar tuli asrho kitobi ruyimizii tabiboni olam buda,  holo ham ahamiyati ilmii khudro gum nakardaast.

Asari digari alloma «Urjuza fi-t-tib» ba zabonhoi lotini, yahudi, inglisi, faronsavi, nemisi, rumini, uzbaki, rusi va gayra tyarjumavu chop shudaast. Okhirin tarjumai lotinii asar az jonibi Antonnus Deuzingius soli 1649 dar Niderland nashr shuda bud.

Asarhoi olamshumuli allomai benaziri tojik Abuali ibni Sino to holo gashtavu bargashta ba zabonhoi gunoguni olam tarjumavu chop meshavand.

Naqshi SHaykhurrais dar tarikhi falsafai jahon chunon buzurg ast, ki  bad az Arastu (384— 322 pesh az melod), muvofiqi etirofi umum, kase dar olami falsafa monandi u paydo nashudaast. Olimoni soha dar SHarqu Garb, minjumla, Ibni Rushd, Umari Hayyom, Muhammadi Jurjoni, Nasiriddini Tusi, Qutbiddini SHerozi, Jaloliddini Davvoni va digaron ba talimoti falsafii u payravi kardaand. Sicheri Brabanti (asri HSH) asoshoi talimoti khudro az asarhoi falsafii Ibni Sino giriftaast. Hanuz soli 1593 dar Rim tarjumai lotinii «Najot» chop shuda bud. Soli 1951 khonum A. Gvashei onro ba faronsavi bargardondavu muntashir sokht.

Asarhoi adabii Ibni Sino niz ba bisyor zabonho tarjumavu nashr shudaand.

Az zamoni zindagii Abuali Sino sar karda, mukholifini  ziyodi goyaviash alayhi vay hamla mekardand, ki donishmandoni buzurge chun Imom Gazoli, Fakhriddini Rozi, Husravi Dehlavi, Abdurahmoni Jomi, Fomai Akvini va amsoli inho dar on qabil buda, guvoh az buzurgii benihoyati jahoni andeshavu barkhurdi Abuali ibni Sino medihad. Aksu minyoturhoi ziyode, ki dar mamlakathoi musulmoni va kishvarhoi garbi roje ba Ibni Sino kashida shudaand, az shuhrati voloi jahoni va muhabbati beoloyishi hamagoni ba in nobigamardi olamshumul darak medihand.

Dar Tojikistonu Eron az khususi jarayoni zindagii alloma filmu namoishnomahoi ziyod ofarida shuda, ashori u hamesha dar ohanghoi khalqivu «SHashmaqom» suruda meshavand. Soli 1954 bo Qarori SHuroi umumijahonii sulh, az ruyi solshumorii hijri, va soli 1980 bo Qarori YUNESKO mutobiqi taqvimi masehi, dar tamomi dunyo jashni 1000-solagii zodruzi Abuali ibni Sino tajlil gardida, dahho kuchavu khiyobon, maktabu omuzishgohu donishkada, korkhonavu bungohi nashru tab dar Tojikistonu Eron, Afgonistonu Uzbakiston, Turkiyavu Pokiston va kishvarhoi digar ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino guzoshta shudand. Dar Dushanbevu Bukhoro haykalhoi birinjii allomai   behamto    chun   nishoni hashamatu abadiyat qadafroz gashtand, ki nomu maqomashro zinda medorand.

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